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* This is the Veterinary Version. *

Serum Biochemical Reference Ranges

By Susan E. Fielder, DVM, MS, DACVP (Clinical Pathology), Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences (CVHS), Oklahoma State University

Serum Biochemical Reference Ranges

Measure

Units

Dog

Cat

Cow

Horse

Pig

Sheep

Goat

Rabbit

Llama

Vietnamese Potbellied Pig

Ostrich

In Conventional (USA) Units

ALT

U/L

10–109

25–97

31–58

26–34

6–19

45–80

6–14

10.9–95.1

Amylase

U/L

226–1,063

550–1,458

200–400

Alk phosa

U/L

1–114

0–45

118–395

68–387

93–387

12–96

41–92

27–160

AST

U/L

13–15

7–38

60–125

160–412

32–84

60–280

167–513

35–130

216–378

16–64

252–401

CK

U/L

52–368

69–214

0–350

60–330

2.4–22.5

8.1–12.9

0.8–8.9

140–372

17–101

212.5–2,851.5

1,655–4,246

GGTa

U/L

6–17.4

6–32

10–60

20–52

20–56

0–7

7–29

14.5–56.2

0–1

LDH

U/L

0–236

58–120

112–456

380–634

238–440

123–392

88–487

869–2,047

SDHa

U/L

4.3–15.3

1–8

1.0–5.8

5.8–27.9

14.0–23.6

1–17

Bicarbonate

mEq/L

17–24

17–24

20–30

24–30

18–27

20–25

Bilirubin

mg/dL

0–0.3

0–0.1

0–1.6

0–3.2

0–10.0

0.1–0.5

0–0.1

0–0.7

0–0.1

0.2–0.45

Calcium

mg/dL

9.1–11.7

8.7–11.7

8.0–11.4

10.2–13.4

7.1–11.6

11.5–12.8

8.9–11.7

11–14

8.0–10.3

10.0–18.4

Chloride

mEq/L

110–124

115–130

99–107

98–109

94–106

95–103

99–110.3

102–109

106–113

94–105

Cholesterol

mg/dL

135–278

71–156

36–54

52–76

80–130

10–80

35–113

Creatinine

mg/dL

0.5–1.7

0.9–2.2

0.5–2.2

0.4–2.2

1.0–2.7

1.2–1.9

1.0–1.8

0.5–2.5

1.1–2.5

1.0–2.3

Glucose

mg/dL

76–119

60–120

40–100

62–134

85–150

50–80

50–75

75–155

103–160

59.8–175.2

187–247

Magnesium

mg/dL

1.6–2.4

1.7–2.6

1.5–2.9

1.4–2.3

2.7–3.7

2.2–2.8

2.8–3.6

1.82–3.77

Phosphorus

mg/dL

2.9–5.3

3.0–6.1

5.6–8.0

1.5–4.7

5.3–9.6

5.0–7.3

4.2–9.1

4.0–6.5

3.1–10.8

4.0–6.8

Potassium

mEq/L

3.9–5.1

3.7–6.1

3.6–4.9

2.9–4.6

4.4–6.7

3.9–5.4

3.5–6.7

3.5–6.9

4.6–7.1

3.7–5.0

4.5–5.9

Protein

g/dL

5.4–7.5

6.0–7.9

6.7–7.5

5.6–7.6

7.9–8.9

6.0–7.9

6.4–7.0

5.4–7.5

5.8–7.5

6.6–8.9

4–5.4

Albumin

g/dL

2.3–3.1

2.8–3.9

2.5–3.8

2.6–4.1

1.9–3.9

2.4–3.0

2.7–3.9

2.7–5.0

3.6–4.8

3.6–5.0

Globulin

g/dL

2.7–4.4

2.6–5.1

3.0–3.5

2.6–4.0

5.3–6.4

3.5–5.7

2.7–4.1

1.5–2.7

1.6–2.9

Sodium

mEq/L

142–152

146–156

136–144

128–142

135–150

139–152

142–155

138–150

148–155

139–148.8

147–157

Urea nitrogen

mg/dL

8–28

19–34

10–25

11–27

10–30

8–20

10–20

20–45

12–34

4.2–15.1

1.4–2.2

In SI Units

Bicarbonate

mmol/L

17–24

17–24

20–30

24–30

18–27

20–25

Bilirubin

μmol/L

0–5.1

0–1.7

0–27.4

0–54.7

0–17.1

1.71–8.55

0–1.71

0–12

0–17.1

3.4–7.7

Calcium

mmol/L

2.3–2.9

2.2–2.9

2.0–2.8

2.5–3.3

1.78–2.9

2.88–3.2

2.23–2.93

2.7–3.5

2.2–2.58

2.5–4.6

Chloride

mmol/L

110–124

115–130

99–107

98–109

94–106

95–103

99–110.3

102–109

106–113

94–105

Cholesterol

mmol/L

3.5–7.2

1.8–4.0

0.93–1.40

1.35–1.97

2.07–3.37

0.3–2.1

0.91–2.93

Creatinine

μmol/L

44–150

80–194

44–194

35–194

141–239

106–168

88.4–159

44.2–221

97.2–221

88.4–203.3

Glucose

mmol/L

4.2–6.6

3.3–6.7

2.2–5.6

3.4–7.4

4.72–8.33

2.78–4.44

2.78–4.16

4.1–8.6

5.72–8.89

3.3–9.9

10.4–13.7

Magnesium

mmol/L

0.7–1.0

0.7–1.1

0.6–1.2

0.6–0.9

1.11–1.52

0.9–1.31

0.31–1.48

0.75–1.55

Phosphorus

mmol/L

0.9–1.7

1.0–2.0

1.8–2.6

0.5–1.5

1.71–3.10

1.62–2.36

1.4–2.9

1.3–2.1

1.0–3.49

1.3–2.2

Potassium

mmol/L

3.9–5.1

3.7–6.1

3.6–4.9

2.9–4.6

4.4–6.7

3.9–5.4

3.5–6.7

3.5–6.9

4.6–7.1

3.7–5.0

4.5–5.9

Protein

g/L

54–75

60–79

67–75

56–76

79–89

60–79

64–70

54–75

58–75

66–89

40–54

Albumin

g/L

23–31

28–39

25–38

26–41

19–39

24–30

27–39

27–50

36–48

36–50

Globulin

g/L

27–44

26–51

30–35

26–40

53–64

35–57

27–41

15–27

16–29

Sodium

mmol/L

142–152

146–156

136–144

128–142

135–150

139–152

142–155

138–150

148–155

139–148.8

147–157

Urea nitrogen

mmol urea/L

2.9–10.0

6.8–12.1

3.6–8.9

3.9–9.6

3.6–10.7

2.8–7.1

3.6–7.1

7.1–16.1

4.3–12.1

1.5–5.4

0.5–0.8

Data on various species compiled and adapted in part from multiple sources, including Latimer KS, Duncan & Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, 5th Ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2011; and Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML, Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 6th Ed., Academic Press, 2008. Reference ranges vary between laboratories. Values provided by the reference laboratory should be used.

a Alk phos = alkaline phosphatase; GGT = gamma glutamyltransferase; SDH = sorbitol dehydrogenase

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* This is the Veterinary Version. *