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Find information on animal health topics, written for the veterinary professional.

Overview of Vaccines and Immunotherapy

By Ian Tizard, BVMS, PhD, DACVM, University Distinguished Professor of Immunology; Director, Richard M. Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University ; Susan L. Payne, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University

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The adaptive immune system responds to microbial invasion by producing protective antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, or both. Appropriate administration of specific microbial antigens, as in a vaccine, can provoke effective, longterm resistance to infection. Conserved microbial molecules can also stimulate the development of innate immune responses. This too enhances resistance to infection and may be clinically useful.