Solvents and emulsifiers are required in most liquid
insecticide preparations. Usually they have low toxicity, but like the petroleum
products (which many are), they must be considered as possible causes of poisoning.
In direct treatment with pesticides, emulsification must be thorough, with an
average droplet size of 5 microns (preferably smaller), or excessive amounts may
stick to treated animals. Treatment should be as for petroleum product poisoning
(see Petroleum Product Poisoning).
GI irritation, narcosis, and kidney and liver damage are
the main signs of acetone poisoning. Treatment consists of gastric lavage,
oxygen, and a low-fat diet. Additional supportive treatment to alleviate
clinical signs may be given.
Isopropyl alcohol poisoning signs are GI pain, cramps,
vomiting, diarrhea, and CNS depression (dizziness, stupor, coma, and death from
respiratory paralysis). The liver and kidneys are reversibly affected.
Dehydration and pneumonia may occur. Treatment consists of emetics, gastric
lavage, milk, oxygen, and artificial respiration.
Typical signs of methanol poisoning include nausea,
vomiting, gastric pain, reflex hyperexcitability, opisthotonos, convulsions,
fixed pupils, and acute peripheral neuritis. Large overdoses can lead to
blindness. Toxic effects are due in part to the alcohol itself, and in part to
formic acid produced by its oxidation. Treatment should include emetics
(apomorphine) followed by gastric lavage with 4% sodium bicarbonate, saline
laxative, oxygen therapy, sodium bicarbonate solution IV, and analgesics;
however, the prognosis is poor. Intensive and prolonged alkalinization is the
mainstay of treatment. Ethanol retards the oxidation of methanol and may be
given as an adjunct therapy.
Last full review/revision August 2014 by Ramesh C. Gupta, DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS