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Vaccination Programs in Poultry

By Bruce Stewart-Brown, DVM, DACPV, Perdue Farms Bruce Stewart-Brown, DVM, DACPV, Perdue Farms

See the following tables for recommended vaccination programs for broilers, broiler-breeders, commercial layers, turkeys, duck breeders, and commercial ducklings.

Vaccination Program for Broilers a

Vaccine

Age

Route

Type

Marek’s diseaseb

1 day

SC

Turkey herpesvirus and SB-1 or Rispens strain for high-challenge areas

Newcastle disease

1 day or

Coarse spray

B1

14–21 days

Water or coarse spray

B1 or LaSota

Infectious bronchitis

1 day or

Coarse spray

Massachusetts

14–21 days

Water or coarse spray

Massachusetts

Infectious bursal disease

14–21 days

Water

Intermediate

a This is an example of a typical vaccination program. Individual programs are highly variable and reflect local conditions, disease prevalence, severity of challenge, and individual preferences.

b Most USA commercial broiler hatcheries use an in ovo vaccination system for Marek’s disease at 17–19 days of embryonation. Infectious bursal disease vaccine (mild strain) may be combined with Marek’s disease vaccines. Vectored vaccines in which Marek's and fowlpox vaccines have been safely modified to carry immunizing antigens for laryngotracheitis, Newcastle disease, or infectious bursal disease are also commonly used in ovo or day-old chicks. Connecticut strain is often combined with Massachusetts. Bronchitis vaccine is usually combined with Newcastle. Other bronchitis strains such as Arkansas 99 and Florida 88 are included in some areas. Vaccinations at 14–21 days are optional. A single drinking water application for Newcastle disease/bronchitis is also common.

Vaccination Program for Broiler Breeders a

Age

Vaccine

Route

Type

1 day

Marek’s disease

SC

Turkey herpesvirus

6–7 days

Tenosynovitis

SC

Live (Mild)

14–21 days

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water

B1/Mass

14–28 days

Infectious bursal disease

Water

Intermediate

4 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or coarse spray

B1/Mass

6–8 wk

Tenosynovitis

SC

Live (Mild)

8–10 wk

Infectious bursal disease

Water or coarse spray

Live

8–10 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or coarse spray

B1 or LaSota/Mass

10–12 wk

Encephalomyelitis

Wing web

Live, chick-embryo origin

10–12 wk

Fowlpox

Wing web

Modified live

10–12 wk

Chicken infectious anemia

Wing web

Modified live

10–12 wk

Laryngotracheitis

Intraocular

Modified live

10–12 wk

Tenosynovitis

Parenteral

Inactivated

10–12 wk

Fowl cholera

Parenteral or

Wing web

Inactivated

Live CU, PM-1, or M9

12–14 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or aerosol

B1 or LaSota/Mass

14–18 wk

Fowl cholera

Parenteral or

Wing web

Inactivated

Live CU, PM-1, or M9

16–18 wk

Infectious bursal disease

Parenteral

Inactivated

16–18 wk

Tenosynovitis

Parenteral

Inactivated

16–18 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or aerosol

B1 or LaSota/Mass

Every 60–90 days or 18 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Parenteral

Inactivated

a This is an example of a vaccination program. Individual programs are highly variable and reflect local conditions, disease prevalence, severity of challenge, and individual preferences. SB-1, MDV301, or Rispens strain may be combined with turkey herpesvirus in some areas. Vaccination for fowlpox and laryngotracheitis depends on local requirements. Other strains of infectious bronchitis (Connecticut, Arkansas 99, Florida 88, etc) are included in some areas.

Vaccination Program for Commercial Layers a

Age

Vaccine

Route

Type

1 day

Marek’s disease

SC

Turkey herpesvirus and SB-1

14 –21 days

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water

B1/Mass

14–21 days

Infectious bursal disease

Water

Intermediate

5 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or coarse spray

B1/Mass

8–10 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or coarse spray

B1 or LaSota/Mass

10–12 wk

Encephalomyelitis

Wing web

Live, chick-embryo origin

10–12 wk

Fowlpox

Wing web

Modified live

10–12 wk

Laryngotracheitis

Intraocular

Modified live

10–14 wk

Mycoplasma gallisepticumb

Intraocular or spray

Mild live strain

or 18 wk

Parenteral

Inactivated

12–14 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or aerosol

B1 or LaSota/Mass

16–18 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Water or aerosol

B1 or LaSota/Mass

Every 60–90 days or 18 wk

Newcastle/infectious bronchitis

Parenteral

Inactivated

a This is an example of a vaccination program. Individual programs are highly variable and reflect local conditions, disease prevalence, severity of challenge, and individual preferences.

b The use of M gallisepticum vaccine is regulated or prohibited in some states. SB-1 or MDV301 may be combined with turkey herpesvirus in some areas, or Rispens strain may be used in high-challenge areas. Vaccination for infectious bursal disease, laryngotracheitis, and fowlpox depends on local requirements. Other strains of infectious bronchitis (Connecticut, Arkansas 99, Florida 88, etc) are included in some areas. M gallisepticum and Haemophilus gallinarum (coryza) are used only on infected, multiage premises in some areas.

Vaccination Program for Turkeys a

Age (wk)b

Market Turkeys

Breeder Hens

Breeder Toms

2–3

NDc B1-B1d or LaSota, DWe or spray

ND, B1-B1 or LaSota, DW or spray

ND, B1-B1 or LaSota, DW or spray

4

Hemorrhagic enteritis, DW

Hemorrhagic enteritis, DW

Hemorrhagic enteritis, DW

6

Fowl cholera,f DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

9–10

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

12

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

15

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

18

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

21

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

ND, LaSota, DW or spray

24

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated)

26

Erysipelas, DW (live) or SC (inactivated) Pox, WWe

Erysipelas, DW (live) or SC (inactivated) Pox, WW

28

ND, SC (inactivated) Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated) Encephalomyelitis, DW

ND, SC (inactivated) Fowl cholera, DW (live) or SC (inactivated) Encephalomyelitis, DW

a Recommendations are for production areas where the diseases listed are common. In addition, other vaccinations may be advisable if previous experience indicates prevalence of certain diseases in the area. These may include turkey bordetellosis eye drop vaccine at 1 day old and in water or spray at 14 days old, or bacterin; paramyxovirus 3 and influenza A (prevalent hemagglutinin) at 26–28 and 40 wk old; erysipelas—live or killed products might be required for market turkeys, and repeated vaccinations might be required for breeders; and salmonellosis bacterins at 24 and 28 wk old.

b Recommended age at vaccination is an approximation.

c ND = Newcastle disease

d Spray ND vaccines should not be used for birds suffering from respiratory disease; in such cases and at that age, the mild B1-B1 strain vaccine could be used in water. Timing of vaccination depends on maternal antibody levels.

e DW = drinking water; WW = wing web stab

f Live fowl cholera vaccines should be used only in healthy flocks.

Vaccination Program for Duck Breeders

Age

Vaccine

Route

Type

1 day old

Riemerella anatipestifer

Aerosol

Live vaccinea

10–14 days

R anatipestifer

Drinking water

Live vaccinea

3 wk

R anatipestifer

SC

Bacterinb

4 wk

Duck viral hepatitis

SC

Live vaccinec (Type 1)

4 wk

Duck viral enteritis

SC

Live vaccinec

10 and 20 wkd

R anatipestifer

SC

Bacterinb

10 and 20 wk

Duck viral hepatitis

SC

Killed virus vaccine (Type 1)

a A live, avirulent vaccine consisting of the three major serotypes (1, 2, and 5) of R anatipestifer

b A formalin-inactivated cell suspension of the three major serotypes (1, 2, and 5) of R anatipestifer. Bacterins and killed virus vaccines are administered SC in the neck.

c A modified-live virus vaccine of chick embryo origin.

d White Pekin breeder ducks normally start egg production at 24 wk of age. Egg production can be accelerated or delayed and breeder vaccination should be completed before the onset of egg production to optimize the passage of parental immunity to the progeny.

Vaccination Program for Commercial Ducklings

Age

Vaccine

Route

Type

1 day old

Riemerella anatipestifer

Aerosol

Live vaccinea

10–14 days

R anatipestifer

Drinking water

Live vaccinea

3 wk

R anatipestifer

SC

Bacterinb

a A live, avirulent vaccine consisting of the three major serotypes (1, 2, and 5) of R anatipestifer

b A formalin-inactivated cell suspension of the three major serotypes (1, 2, and 5) of R anatipestifer is recommended for preventive immunization on farms where the disease is endemic or epidemic. An Escherichia coli bacterin can also be used where field challenge warrants. Ducklings should not be vaccinated within 21 days of slaughter.

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