Merck Manual

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Antifungals Used in Pet Birds

Antifungals Used in Pet Birds

Antifungala

Dosage

Route, Frequency

Amphotericin B

1 mg/kg intratracheal; 0.25–1 mg/mL sterile water for nebulization

Given intratracheally once daily; nebulized 10–20 min, bid

Amphotericin B

1.5 mg/kg

IV, tid

Amphotericin B suspension

100 mg/kg

PO, bid × 30 days

Clotrimazole

2 mg/kg

Given intratracheally, once daily × 5 days

Clotrimazole

10 mg/mL (1%)

Nasal flush; nebulized for 30 min bid

Enilconazole

1 mg (0.05 mL/kg of a 1:10 dilution)

Given intratracheally, once daily × 7–14 days

Enilconazole

0.1 mL/kg in 5 mL sterile water

Nebulize for 30 min, 5 days on, 2 days off

Fluconazole

5–15 mg/kg

PO, bid

Fluconazole

20 mg/kg

PO, every 48 hr × 3 treatments

Griseofulvin

10 mg/kg

PO, bid

5-Flucytosine

20–75 mg/kg

PO, bid

F-10b (quaternary ammonium disinfectant)

1.5/400 mL distilled water

Nebulization for cutaneous and possibly respiratory fungus

Itraconazole

5–10 mg/kg

PO, once to twice daily (lower dosage, and use cautiously in African grey parrots)

Ketoconazole

10–30 mg/kg

PO, bid

Terbinafine

10–15 mg/kg

1 mg/mL solution

PO, bid

Nebulization for 30 min

Nystatin oral suspension (100,000 U/mL)

300,000–600,000 U/kg

PO, bid

Voriconazole

12–18 mg/kg

PO, bid

a Most are unapproved for use in birds, and caution is indicated.

b Quaternary ammonium and biguanidine compound; nontoxic, ampholytic surfactant