Merck Manual

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Urine Collection Methods

Advantages and Disadvantages of Urine Collection Methods

Method of Collection

Advantages

Disadvantages

Spontaneous micturition

No risk (eg, trauma, bacterial infection) to animal. Avoids iatrogenic hematuria.

May contain debris (eg, bacteria, exudate) from lower urinary and genital tract. If bacterial growth appears on urine culture, must differentiate between urethral contamination and urinary tract infection. Quantitative urine culture required.

Manual compression of urinary bladder

Provides method to obtain urine sample when voluntary micturition has not occurred.

May induce trauma to urinary tract, resulting in hematuria. May be stressful for animal, especially if bladder is painful. If bacterial growth appears on urine culture, must differentiate between urethral contamination and urinary tract infection. Quantitative urine culture required.

Catheterization

Provides method to obtain urine sample when other methods of collection have failed.

Potential for trauma to urinary tract, especially urethra. More invasive than other methods; sedation may be required. Risk of introducing bladder infection. If bacterial growth appears on urine culture, must differentiate between urethral contamination and urinary tract infection. Quantitative urine culture required. Least desirable method of urine collection.

Cystocentesis

Preferred method of collection for urine culture. Avoids contamination of sample from lower urinary tract.

Potential risk of trauma if performed incorrectly or animal moves during procedure. Potential for iatrogenic hematuria. More invasive than spontaneous micturition. Potential for bacterial contamination of sample if needle penetrates colon during procedure.