Merck Manual

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Guidelines for Submitting Samples for Toxicologic Examination

Guidelines for Submitting Samples for Toxicologic Examination

Suspected Poison or Analysis

Specimen Required

Comments

Ammonia

Whole blood or serum

Urine

Rumen contents

Frozen

Frozen

Frozen (or may add 1–2 drops saturated HgCl3)

Anticoagulants (warfarin and related compounds)

Whole blood

Liver

Feed

Stomach contents

Heparin or EDTA

Refrigerated

Arsenic

Liver

Kidney

Urine

Ingesta

Feed

Chlorates

Stomach contents

Urine

Feed

Frozen, in airtight container

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Cerebrum

Ingesta

Body fat

Liver

Kidney

Use only glass containers

Avoid contamination

Refrigerated or frozen

Cholinesterase

Serum

Cerebrum

Frozen

Copper (and Ni, Fe, Co, Cr, and Tl)

Kidney

Liver

Serum

Feed

Whole blood

Feces

Cyanide

Forage

Whole blood

Liver

Rush to laboratory or ship promptly, frozen in airtight container

Dicoumarol

Forage

Liver

Ethylene glycol

Serum

Urine

Kidneys

Fresh plus fixed in formalin

Fluorides

Bone

Water

Forage

Urine

Best to send affected bone(s)

Herbicides (many)

Treated weeds

Urine

Ingesta

Liver or kidney

Ionophores

Feed

Rumen contents

Heart

Skeletal muscle

Fixed in formalin

Fixed in formalin

Lead (also Hg, Mo, Ni, and Tl)

Kidney

Whole blood

Liver

Urine

Heparinized blood preferred

Mercury and molybdenum

Kidney

Whole blood

Liver

Feed

See Lead, above

Mycotoxins

Grain, forages

Liver, kidney

Consult with laboratory personnel on specific tests

Nitrate

Forage

Water

Body fluids (eg, aqueous humor)

Refrigerated

Organophosphates (and carbamates)

Feed

Ingesta

Urine

Also send urine, blood, and stomach contents from clinically normal animals

Oxalates

Fresh forage

Kidney

Do not macerate; freeze

Fixed in formalin

Phenols

Gastric or rumen contents

In airtight container

Polychlorinated (and polybrominated) biphenyls

Fat

Cerebrum

Feed

Rumen pH

Ingesta

Frozen

Selenium

Whole blood

Feed

Liver

Hair clippings

Heparinized

Sodium (NaCl)

Brain

Serum

CSF

Feed

Other half fixed in formalin

Sodium fluoroacetate (1080)

Stomach contents

Liver

Frozen

Strychnine (and some other convulsants such as bromethalin)

Liver

Kidney

Stomach contents

Sulfates

Water

Brain

Fixed in formalin

TDS (total dissolved solids)

Water

Triaryl-PO4

Ingesta

Feed

Urea

Feed

See Ammonia, above

Vitamin A (also D and E)

Liver

Serum

Frozen

Vitamin D3 (rodenticides)

Kidney

Zinc

Liver

Kidney

Serum

Use “trace minerals” tubes

Zinc phosphide

Liver

Gastric contents

Frozen