Merck Manual

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Antimicrobial Drugs Used in Reptiles

Antimicrobial Drugs Used in Reptiles

Drug

Dosage

Comments

Acyclovir

80 mg/kg/day, PO; topical cream 12 times daily

Antiviral

Amikacin

Corn snake: loading dose 1.7 mg/kg, IM, followed by 26 mcg/kg/hr via osmotic infusion-pump implant

Gopher snake: initial dose 5 mg/kg, IM, then 2.5 mg/kg, IM, every 3 days

Gopher tortoise: 5 mg/kg, IM, on alternate days

American alligator (juvenile): 2.25 mg/kg, IM, every 3–4 days

Ball python: 3.5 mg/kg, IM, every 4–5 days

50 mg/10 mL saline × 30 min nebulization bid

Maintain hydration

Amoxicillin

22 mg/kg, PO, bid

10 mg/kg/day, IM

Often ineffective unless given in combination with aminoglycosides

Amphotericin B

0.5–1 mg/kg, intracoelomic, IV, 1–3 days for 14–28 days

Aspergillosis; fluid therapy recommended

Tortoise: 0.1 mg/kg/day, intrapulmonary, for 28 days

5 mg/150 mL saline for 1 hr of nebulization, bid for 7 days

Pulmonary candidiasis

Ampicillin

Most species: 10–20 mg/kg, SC, IM, 1–2 times/day

Tortoises: 50 mg/kg, IM, bid

Azithromycin

Ball python: 10 mg/kg, PO, every 3–7 days (3 days for skin infections, 5 days for respiratory tract, 7 days for liver and kidneys)

Carbenicillin

200–400 mg/kg/day, IM

Cephalexin

20–40 mg/kg, PO, bid

Ceftazidime

20–40 mg/kg, SC, IM, IV, every 2–3 days

Ceftiofur

Tortoises: 2.2–4 mg/kg/day, IM

Snakes: 2.2 mg/kg, IM, on alternate days

Lizards: 5 mg/kg/day, IM, SC

Cefuroxime

100 mg/kg/day, IM, for 10 days at 30°C

Chloramphenicol

Indigo snake: 50 mg/kg, IM, bid

Midland water snakes: 50 mg/kg, IM, every 4 days

Most species: 20–40 mg/kg, IM, once to twice daily

Ciprofloxacin

10 mg/kg, PO, on alternate days

Clarithromycin

Desert tortoise: 15 mg/kg, PO, every 2–3 days

Mycoplasma

Clindamycin

5 mg/kg, PO, bid

Clotrimazole

Topical

Fungal dermatitis

Doxycycline

Most species: 5–10 mg/kg/day, PO

Hermann's tortoises: 50 mg/kg, IM, then 25 mg/kg, every 3 days

Enrofloxacin

Most species: 5-10 mg/kg/day, IM, PO

IM injection likely causes necrosis, and consideration should be given to single injection followed by oral administration

Nasal flush 50 mg/250 mL sterile water; 1–3 mL/nares daily to every other day

Burmese python (juvenile): 10 mg/kg, IM, initial dosage, then 5 mg/kg, IM, every 48 hr. Pseudomonas: 10 mg/kg, IM, every 48 hr

IM injection likely causes necrosis, and consideration should be given to single injection followed by oral administration

Hermann’s tortoise: 10 mg/kg/day, IM

IM injection likely causes necrosis, and consideration should be given to single injection followed by oral administration

Monitor lizards: 10 mg/kg, IM, every 5 days

Indian star tortoise: 5 mg/kg, IM, once to twice daily

IM injection likely causes necrosis, and consideration should be given to single injection followed by oral administration

Crocodilians: 5 mg/kg IV every 2–3 days

Fluconazole

Lizards: 5 mg/kg/day, PO

Sea turtles: 21 mg/kg, SC, once; then 10 mg/kg, SC, 5 days later

Gentamicin

American alligator: 1.75 mg/kg, IM, every 3–4 days at 22°C

Maintain hydration, nephrotoxicity reported

Painted turtle: 10 mg/kg, IM, on alternate days at 26°C

Maintain hydration, nephrotoxicity reported

Red-eared terrapin: 6 mg/kg, IM, every 25 days

Maintain hydration, nephrotoxicity reported

Gopher snake: 2.5 mg/kg, IM, every 3 days at 24°C

Maintain hydration, nephrotoxicity reported

Itraconazole

Chameleon: 5 mg/kg/day, PO

Fungal dermatitis

Spiny lizard: 23.5 mg/kg/day, PO, for 3 days, with persistent drug concentration for 6 days

Snakes: 10 mg/kg/day, PO

Sea turtles: 5 mg/kg/day, PO, or 15 mg/kg, PO, every 72 hr

Kanamycin

10 mg/kg/day, IM, at 24°C

Fluid therapy recommended

Ketoconazole

Crocodilians: 50 mg/kg/day, PO

Most species: 15–30 mg/kg/day, PO, for 14–28 days

Lincomycin

10 mg/kg/day, PO; 5 mg/kg, IM, once to twice daily

Marbofloxacin

Ball python: 10 mg/kg, PO, every 48 hr

Metronidazole

Bacterial infections, 20–50 mg/kg, PO, every 1–2 days

Maximal dose for tricolor snake, king snake, indigo snake, or Uracoan rattlesnake, is 40 mg/kg

Neomycin

10 mg/kg/day, PO

Oral only, not to be given systemically

Nystatin

Enteric fungal conditions in turtles: 100,000 U/kg/day, PO, for 10 days

Oxytetracycline

Most species: 5–10 mg/kg/day, IM, PO

Pain, irritation, and inflammation at injection site

American alligator: 10 mg/kg, IV, IM, every 4–5 days

Mycoplasmosis

Piperacillin

50–100 mg/kg, IM, every 12 days

Fluid therapy recommended

Polymixin B

Topical

Abrasions, wounds

Silver sulfadiazine

Topical every 24–72 hr

Broad spectrum for skin infections

Sulfamethoxydiazine

80 mg/kg, SC, IM, then 40 mg/kg/day, for 5–7 days

Coccidial infections

Tobramycin

Chelonians: 10 mg/kg, IM, every 1–2 days

Most species: 2.5 mg/kg, IM, every 1–3 days

Potentially nephrotoxic, fluid therapy recommended

Tylosin

5 mg/kg/day, IM

Mycoplasmosis

Voriconazole

10 mg/kg, PO