Merck Manual

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Common Congenital Cardiovascular Defects in Domestic Livestock

Common Congenital Cardiovascular Defects in Domestic Livestock

Species

Most Common Defects

Cattle

Ventricular septal defect, ectopic heart, ventricular hypoplasia

Sheep

Ventricular septal defect

Pigs

Tricuspid valve dysplasia, atrial septal defect, subaortic stenosis

Horses

Ventricular septal defect, PDA, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia