Merck Manual

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Infectious Causes of Anemia

Infectious Causes of Anemia

Infectious Agent

Species Affected

Hemolytic

Marrow Affected

Bacteria

Clostridium perfringens A

Cattle, sheep

Yes

No

Clostridium haemolyticum

Cattle, sheep

Yes

No

Leptospira interrogans

Cattle, pigs, sheep

Yes

No

Mycoplasma spp

Cats

±

Rarely

Haemobartonella spp

Cattle, cats

±

No

Viruses

Equine infectious anemia virus

Horses

±

Rarely

Feline leukemia virus

Cats

±

Yes

Feline immunodeficiency virus

Cats

No

Yes

Rickettsia

Mycoplasma spp

Cattle, goats, llamas, pigs, sheepa

Yes (piglets only)

No

Anaplasma spp

Cattle, goats, sheep

Yes

No

Ehrlichia spp

Dogs

Yes

Yes

Protozoa

Babesia spp

Cattle, cats, dogs, horses, sheep

Yes

No

Theileria sppb

Cattle, goats, sheep

±

No

Cytauxzoon spp

Cats

No

Yes

Trypanosoma spp

Cattle, horses, pigs

Yes

No

Sarcocystis cruzi

Cattle

Yes

No

a In adults, only clinically relevant in splenectomized or critically ill animals.

b Pathogenic species of Theileria are found in Africa, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. Species found in North America are nonpathogenic.