Merck Manual

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Feeding Guidelines for Large-Breed Dairy Cattle a

Feeding Guidelines for Large-Breed Dairy Cattle a

Dry (Far off)

Close (Close up)

Cow - Fresh

Cow - Early

Cow - Mid

Cow - Late

6-mo Heifer

12-mo Heifer

18-mo Heifer

24-mo Heifer (Close up)

Body wt, lb (kg)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

440 (200)

660 (300)

1,000 (450)

1,375 (625)

DMI, lb (kg/day)

32 (14)

22 (10)

34 (15)

66 (30)

52 (24)

45 (20)

11 (5)

16 (7)

25 (11)

23 (10)

Milk, lbb (kg/day)

77 (35)

120 (55)

77 (35)

55 (25)

CP (%)c

9.9

12.4

19.5

16.7

15.2

14.1

12.3

11.4

8.8

15.0

RDP (%)

7.7

9.6

10.5

9.8

9.7

9.5

9.4

9.5

8.8

10.1

RUP (%)

2.2

2.8

9.0

6.9

5.5

4.6

2.9

1.9

0.004

4.9

MP (%)

6.0

8.0

13.8

11.6

10.2

9.2

7.2

7.0

5.3

9.7

NEL, Mcal/lb (Mcal/kg)

0.60 (1.32)

0.65 (1.43)

1.01d (2.22)

0.73 (1.61)

0.67 (1.47)

0.62 (1.36)

0.72 (1.58)

ME, Mcal/lb (Mcal/kg)

0.93 (2.05)

1.03 (2.27)

0.82 (1.80)

NDF (%)

40

35

30

28

30

32

30

32

33

35

ADF (%)

30

25

21

19

21

24

20

22

24

25

NFC (%)

30

34

35

38

35

32

35

30

25

34

Calcium (%)

0.44

0.48

0.79

0.60

0.61

0.62

0.41

0.41

0.37

0.40

Phosphorus (%)

0.22

0.26

0.42

0.38

0.35

0.32

0.28

0.23

0.18

0.23

Magnesium (%)

0.11

0.40

0.29

0.21

0.19

0.18

0.11

0.11

0.08

0.40

Chlorine (%)

0.13

0.20

0.20

0.29

0.26

0.24

0.11

0.12

0.10

0.20

Sodium (%)

0.10

0.14

0.34

0.22

0.23

0.22

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.14

Potassium (%)

0.51

0.62

1.24

1.07

1.04

1.00

0.47

0.48

0.46

0.55

Sulfur (%)

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Vitamin A (IU/day)

80,300

83,270

75,000

75,000

75,000

75,000

24,000

24,000

36,000

75,000

Vitamin D (IU/day)

21,900

22,700

21,000

21,000

21,000

21,000

6,000

9,000

13,500

20,000

Vitamin E (IU/day)

1,168

1,200

545

545

545

545

240

240

360

1,200

Adapted, with permission, from Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 2001, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

a DMI, dry matter intake; CP, crude protein; RDP, rumen degradable protein; RUP, rumen undegraded protein; MP, metabolizable protein; NEL, net energy lactation; ME, metabolizable energy; NDF, neutral detergent fiber; ADF, acid detergent fiber; NFC, non-fiber carbohydrate. Trace mineral added to ration (expressed as ppm): cobalt: 0.11; copper 10–18; iodine: 0.3–0.4; iron: 13–130; manganese: 14–24; selenium: 0.30; zinc: 22–70.

b Milk components: 3.5% fat, 3.0% true protein, and 4.8% lactose.

c All concentration values are on a dry-matter basis.

d These cows will lose body weight (values >0.82 not feasible).