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Dietary Nutrient Requirements of Growing Pigs Allowed Ad Lib Feed (90% dry matter) a,b,c

Dietary Nutrient Requirements of Growing Pigs Allowed Ad Lib Feed (90% dry matter) a,b,c

--------------------------Body Weight (kg)---------------------------

5–7

7–11

11–25

25–50

50–75

75–100

100–135

NE content of diet (kcal/kg)d

2,448

2,448

2,412

2,475

2,475

2,475

2,475

DE content of diet (kcal/kg)d

3,542

3,542

3,490

3,402

3,402

3,402

3,402

ME content of diet (kcal/kg)d

3,400

3,400

3,350

3,300

3,300

3,300

3,300

Estimated ME intake (kcal/day)

904

1,592

3,033

4,959

6,989

8,265

9,196

Estimated feed intake + wastage (g/day)e

280

493

953

1,582

2,229

2,636

2,933

Body wt gain (g/day)

210

335

585

758

900

917

867

Body protein deposition (g/day)

--

--

--

128

147

141

122

Amino acids, total (%)f

Arginine

0.75

0.68

0.62

0.50

0.44

0.38

0.32

Histidine

0.58

0.53

0.48

0.39

0.34

0.30

0.25

Isoleucine

0.88

0.79

0.73

0.59

0.52

0.45

0.39

Leucine

1.71

1.54

1.41

1.13

0.98

0.85

0.71

Lysine

1.70

1.53

1.40

1.12

0.97

0.84

0.71

Methionine

0.49

0.44

0.40

0.32

0.28

0.25

0.21

Methionine + cystine

0.96

0.87

0.79

0.65

0.57

0.50

0.43

Phenylalanine

1.01

0.91

0.83

0.68

0.59

0.51

0.43

Phenylalanine + tyrosine

1.60

1.44

1.32

1.08

0.94

0.82

0.70

Threonine

1.05

0.95

0.87

0.72

0.64

0.56

0.49

Tryptophan

0.28

0.25

0.23

0.19

0.17

0.15

0.13

Valine

1.10

1.00

0.91

0.75

0.65

0.57

0.49

Approximate crude proteing

24–26

22–24

21–23

19.3

17.1

15.2

13.4

Minerals

Calcium (%)

0.85

0.80

0.70

0.66

0.59

0.52

0.46

Phosphorus, total (%)h

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.56

0.52

0.47

0.43

STTD phosphorus (%)h

0.45

0.40

0.33

0.31

0.27

0.24

0.21

ATTD phosphorus (%)h

0.41

0.36

0.29

0.26

0.23

0.21

0.18

Sodium (%)

0.40

0.35

0.28

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

Chlorine (%)

0.50

0.45

0.32

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

Magnesium (%)

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

Potassium (%)

0.30

0.28

0.26

0.23

0.19

0.17

0.17

Copper (ppm)

6.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.50

3.00

3.00

Iodine (ppm)

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

Iron (ppm)

100

100

100

60

50

40

40

Manganese (ppm)

4.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

Selenium (ppm)

0.30

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.15

0.15

Zinc (ppm)

100

100

80

60

50

50

50

Vitamins and fatty acids

Vitamin A (IU/kg)i

2,200

2,200

1,750

1,300

1,300

1,300

1,300

Vitamin D (IU/kg)i

220

220

200

150

150

150

150

Vitamin E (IU/kg)i

16

16

11

11

11

11

11

Vitamin K (menadione, mg/kg)

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Biotin (mg/kg)

0.08

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Choline (g/kg)

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Folacin (mg/kg)

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Niacin, available (mg/kg)j

30.00

30.00

30.00

30.00

30.00

30.00

30.00

Pantothenic acid (mg/kg)

12.00

10.00

9.00

8.00

7.00

7.00

7.00

Riboflavin (mg/kg)

4.00

3.50

3.00

2.50

2.00

2.00

2.00

Thiamine (mg/kg)

1.50

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Vitamin B6 (mg/kg)

7.00

7.00

3.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Vitamin B12 (mcg/kg)

20.00

17.50

15.00

10.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

Linoleic acid (%)

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

a Adapted, with permission, from Nutrient Requirements of Swine (2012), National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

b Estimates of nutrient requirements are for the midpoint of the weight range as determined by the NRC growth model for pigs of mixed gender (1:1 ratio of barrows and gilts) with high-medium lean growth rate (mean whole body-protein deposition of 135 g/day) from 25–125 kg body wt.

c Estimates of amino acid, calcium, and phosphorus requirements differ for barrows, gilts, and intact boars, for pigs with differing lean growth rates, for pigs fed ractopamine, and for boars immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone. For additional information, see Nutrient Requirements of Swine (2012), National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

d NE = net energy, DE = digestible energy, ME = metabolizable energy. Dietary energy contents relate to corn and soybean meal–based diets. DE and ME are calculated from NE.

e Assumes 5% feed wastage.

f Total amino acid requirements apply to corn-soybean meal–-based diets. For 5- to 25-kg pigs, lysine percentages are estimated from empirical data, and the other amino acids are based on the ratios of amino acids to lysine based on amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth. The requirements for 25- to 135-kg pigs are estimated from the NRC growth model.

g The calculated crude protein levels are based on corn-soybean meal diets containing 0.1% supplemental lysine and 3% minerals and vitamins. In addition, specialty ingredients (lactose, dried whey, dried blood plasma, dried blood cells, etc) are included in diets for 5–11 kg pigs.

h STTD = standardized total tract digestible, ATTD = apparent total tract digestible, ATTD phosphorus and total phosphorus requirements apply to corn and soybean meal–based diets.

i Conversions: 1 IU vitamin A = 0.30 mcg retinol or 0.344 mcg retinyl acetate; 1 IU vitamin D2 or D3 = 0.025 mcg cholecalciferol; 1 IU vitamin E = 0.67 mg of D-α-tocopherol or 1 mg of DL-α-tocopherol acetate.

j The niacin in corn, grain sorghum, wheat, and barley is unavailable. Similarly, the niacin in byproducts made from these cereal grains is poorly available unless the by-products have undergone fermentation or wet-milling process.