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Reproductive Measures and Dietary Nutrient Requirements of Gestating and Lactating Sows a,b

Reproductive Measures and Dietary Nutrient Requirements of Gestating and Lactating Sows a,b

-------Gestation-------

Lactation (21-day)

Reproductive Measures

Parity

1

3

1

2+

Body weight at breeding (kg)

140

185

--

--

Anticipated gestation weight gain (kg)

65.0

52.2

--

--

Anticipated litter size

12.5

13.5

--

--

Day of gestation

0–90

90–115

0–90

90–115

--

--

_______

_______

_______

_______

--

--

Body weight postfarrowing (kg)

--

--

--

--

175

210

Litter size

--

--

--

--

11

11.5

Daily weight gain of nursing pigs (g)

--

--

--

--

230

230

Nutrient Requirements

NE content of diet (kcal/kg)c

2,518

2,518

2,518

2,518

2,518

2,518

DE content of diet (kcal/kg)c

3,388

3,388

3,388

3,388

3,388

3,388

ME content of diet (kcal/kg)c

3,300

3,300

3,300

3,300

3,300

3,300

Estimated ME intake (kcal/day)

6,678

7,932

6,928

8,182

18,700

20,700

Estimated feed intake (g/day) + wastaged

2,130

2,530

2,210

2,610

5,950

6,610

Body wt gain (g/day)

578

543

472

408

--

--

Body wt loss (21-day lactation, kg)

--

--

--

--

7.7

5.8

Amino acids, total (%)e

Arginine

0.32

0.42

0.23

0.32

0.50

0.48

Histidine

0.22

0.27

0.16

0.20

0.37

0.36

Isoleucine

0.36

0.43

0.27

0.33

0.52

0.50

Leucine

0.55

0.75

0.41

0.59

1.05

1.01

Lysine

0.61

0.80

0.45

0.62

0.93

0.90

Methionine

0.18

0.23

0.13

0.18

0.25

0.24

Methionine + cystine

0.41

0.54

0.32

0.44

0.51

0.49

Phenylalanine

0.34

0.44

0.25

0.35

0.51

0.49

Phenylalanine + tyrosine

0.61

0.79

0.46

0.62

1.07

1.03

Threonine

0.46

0.58

0.37

0.48

0.62

0.60

Tryptophan

0.11

0.15

0.09

0.13

0.18

0.17

Valine

0.45

0.58

0.34

0.46

0.81

0.78

Approximate crude proteinf

11.9

14.7

9.6

12.0

16.6

16.1

Minerals

Calcium (%)

0.61

0.83

0.49

0.72

0.71

0.68

Phosphorus, total (%)g

0.49

0.62

0.41

0.55

0.62

0.60

STTD phosphorus (%)g

0.27

0.36

0.21

0.31

0.36

0.34

ATTD phosphorus (%)g

0.23

0.31

0.18

0.27

0.31

0.29

Sodium (%)

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.20

0.20

Chlorine (%)

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.16

0.16

Magnesium (%)

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

0.06

Potassium (%)

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Copper (ppm)

10.00

10

10

10

20

20

Iodine (ppm)

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

Iron (ppm)

80

80

80

80

80

80

Manganese (ppm)

25

25

25

25

25

25

Selenium (ppm)

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Zinc (ppm)

100

100

100

100

100

100

Vitamins and fatty acids

Vitamin A (IU/kg)h

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

2,000

2,000

Vitamin D (IU/kg)h

800

800

800

800

800

800

Vitamin E (IU/kg)h

44

44

44

44

44

44

Vitamin K (menadione, mg/kg)

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Biotin (mg/kg)

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Choline (g/kg)

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.00

1.00

Folacin (mg/kg)

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.30

1.30

Niacin, available (mg/kg)i

10

10

10

10

10

10

Pantothenic acid (mg/kg)

12

12

12

12

12

12

Riboflavin (mg/kg)

3.75

3.75

3.75

3.75

3.75

3.75

Thiamine (mg/kg)

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Vitamin B6 (mg/kg)

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Vitamin B12 (mcg/kg)

15

15

15

15

15

15

Linoleic acid (%)

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

a Adapted, with permission, from Nutrient Requirements of Swine (2012), National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

b Estimates of amino acid, calcium, and phosphorus requirements during gestation differ for parity 1, 2, 3, and 4+ sows, stage of gestation, body weight at breeding, anticipated litter size, and other factors. Requirements for these nutrients during lactation differ for parity 1 and 2+ sows, body weight after farrowing, litter size, and other factors. For additional information, see Nutrient Requirements of Swine (2012), National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

c NE = net energy, DE = digestible energy, ME = metabolizable energy. Dietary energy contents related to corn and soybean meal–based diets. DE and ME are calculated from NE.

d Assumes 5% feed wastage.

e Total amino acid requirements apply to corn-soybean meal–based diets.

f The calculated crude protein levels are based on corn-soybean meal diets containing 0.1% supplemental lysine and 3% minerals and vitamins.

g STTD = standardized total tract digestible, ATTD = apparent total tract digestible, ATTD phosphorus and total phosphorus requirements apply to corn and soybean meal–based diets.

h Conversions: 1 IU vitamin A = 0.30 mcg retinol or 0.344 mcg retinyl acetate; 1 IU vitamin D2 or D3 = 0.025 mcg cholecalciferol; 1 IU vitamin E = 0.67 mg of D-α-tocopherol or 1 mg of DL-α-tocopherol acetate.

i The niacin in corn, grain sorghum, wheat, and barley is unavailable. Similarly, the niacin in byproducts made from these cereal grains is poorly available unless the by-products have undergone fermentation or wet-milling process.