Merck Manual

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Herbicide Poisoning

Herbicide Poisoning

Compound

Acute Oral LD50—Rat

NOAELa (oral)

Acute Dermal LD50

Avian Toxicity/NOAECb

Toxicity to Fish in Water

Skin and Eye Irritation

Acetochlor

2,148–2,950 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 12 mg/kg/day

Rabbit 4,166 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 5,620 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 0.45 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–mild

Acifluorfen

1,300 mg/kg (F)

Rat, 2 yr 180 ppm

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >10,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 31 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–severe

Acrolein

29 mg/kg

Rat, 13 wk 150 mg/L in drinking water

Rabbit 231 mg/kg

LD50 (oral)

Bobwhite quail 19 mg/kg

Mallard duck 9.1 mg/kg

LC50 24 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 0.024 mg/L

Skin–severe

Eye–severe

Alachlor

930–1,200 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days <200 mg/kg/day

Rabbit 13,300 mg/kg

Skin–mild

Ametryn

1,009–1,405 mg/kg

Rat reproduction, 50 ppm

Rabbit 2,020 mg/kg

LD50 (oral)

Birds >2,250 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Birds >5,620 ppm

Skin–irritation

Guinea pig–dermal sensitization

Eye–mild

α-Metolachlor

2,675–2,952 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days 0.0125 mg/kg/day

Rat 2,020 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 3.9–10 ppm

Skin–slight

Eye–mild

Atrazine

2,000–3,080 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 150 ppm

Rat, 2 yr 10 ppm

Rabbit 7,500 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 8.8 mg/L

Skin–slight

Amitrole

4,080 mg/kg (M)

Rat, 13 wk 2 mg/kg/day

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LD50

Mallard duck 2,000 mg/kg

Skin–mild

Eye–mild

Ammonium sulfamate

3,900 mg/kg

Rat, 105 days 10,000 mg/kg/day

LD50

Bobwhite quail 3,000 mg/kg

LC50 48 hr

Crucian carp 1,000–2,000 mg/L

Skin–none

Bensulfron methyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat, dog, 2 yr 750 ppm in diet

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >150 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–serious

Bensulidec

271–770 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days 12.5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit 3,950 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail 3 wk 50 mg/kg, poor hatchability

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 1.4 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.7 mg/L

Eye–none

Bentazon

1,100 mg/kg (cat 500 mg/kg)

Rat, 90 days 3.5 mg/kg/day

Dog, 90 days 7.5 mg/kg/day

Rat >2,500 mg/kg

LD50

Japanese quail 720 mg/kg

Mallard duck 2,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 616 mg/L

Rainbow trout 1,060 mg/L

Slight irritant

Bispyribac sodium

Rat, 2 yr

1.1 mg/kg/day (M)

1.4 mg/kg/day (F)

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >100 ppm

Skin–minor

Eye–minor

Borax

2,000–6,000 mg/kg

Bromacil

5,200 mg/kg

Rat, dog, 2 yr 250 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 mg/kg

LC50 48 hr

Bluegill 71 mg/L

Rainbow trout 56 mg/L

Skin–irritating

Eye–irritating

Bromoxynil

190–779 mg/kg

Rat, 90 days 50 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

Acute LD50

Bobwhite quail 100 mg/kg

Mallard duck 200 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 0.05 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Butachlorc

2,000–3,300 mg/kg

Rabbits maternal and fetal effects, 50 mg/kg/day

Rat >13.3 g/kg

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Guinea pig–dermal sensitization

Butylatec

>5,431 mg/kg (M) 4,659 mg/kg (F)

Rat, 2 yr 20 mg/kg/day

Dog, 1 yr 25 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >4,640 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail 40,000 mg/kg

Mallard duck 46,400 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 6.9 mg/L

Rainbow trout 4.2 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–mild

Carfentrazone ethyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr

9 mg/kg/day (M)

3 mg/kg/day (F)

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 2 ppm

Rainbow trout 16 ppm

Skin–none to slight

Eye–minimum

Chloramben

5,620 mg/kg

Rabbit >3,160 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >4,640 mg/kg

Not toxic to fish

Skin–mild

Eye–mild

Chlorotoluron

>10,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout >100 mg/L

Chlorpropham

4,100–7,000 mg/kg

Rat, dog, 2 yr 100–350 mg/kg/day

LD50 8 day

Mallard duck >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 48 hr

Bluegill 6.3–6.8 mg/L

Rainbow trout 3–6 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–moderate

Chlorsulfuron

5,545 mg/kg (M)

6,293 mg/kg (F)

Rat, 2 yr 100 ppm in diet

Rabbit >3,400 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout >250 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild

Chlorthal dimethyl

3,000–12,000 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr <50 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LD50 young

Bobwhite quail 5,500 mg/kg

Not toxic to fish

Skin–none

Eye–mild

Clethodim

1,630 mg/kg (M)

1,360 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr >1 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail 4,270 ppm

Mallard duck 3,978 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 13 ppm

Rainbow trout 18 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Clodinafop propargyl

1,392 mg/kg (M)

2,271 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 90 days

0.346 mg/kg/day (M)

1.89 mg/kg/day (F)

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Birds >5,000 ppm

LC50

Freshwater fish 0.3 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–slight to severe

Clomazone

2,077 mg/kg (M)

1,369 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr <2.5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LD50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 5,620 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 34 mg/L

Rainbow trout 19 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Clopyralid

>4,300 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 50 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >4,640 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 125 mg/L

Rainbow trout 103.5 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–severe

Cloransulam-methyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 10 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >154 ppm

Rainbow trout >86 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Copper chelate

498 mg/kg

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >1,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 1.2–7.5 mg/L

Rainbow trout <0.2–4 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Copper sulfate

470 mg/kg

Rabbit >8,000 mg/kg

LD50 (oral)

Pheasant 1,000 ppm in diet (estimated)

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 4.4–7.3 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.135 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–severe

Cyanazined

182–334 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr <225 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail 400 mg/kg

Mallard duck >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 23 mg/L

Rainbow trout 9 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild

Cycloate

2,000–3,190 mg/kg

Dog, 240 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >4,640 mg/kg

LC50 7 day

Bobwhite quail >56,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 5.6 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Cyhalofopbutyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 46.7 mg/kg/day (M)

45.9 mg/kg/day (F)

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >99.2 mg/L

Rainbow trout >1.65 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–minimal

Dalapon

6,600–9,330 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Fish 210–340 mg/L

Di-allated

340–460 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Fish 8.2 mg/L

2,4-D

370–700 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 50 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >4,640 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >300 mg/L

Rainbow trout 800 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

2,4-D dimethyl-amine

949–4,650 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 1 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >5,600 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 524 mg/L

Rainbow trout 250 mg/L

Skin–minimal

Eye–severe

2,4-D isooctyl ester

500–700 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 1 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

As for 2,4-D (above)

Skin–none

Eye–severe

Dazomet

551–646 mg/kg (M)

335–562 mg/kg (F)

Rat, 2 yr 1.6 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail 415 ppm in diet

LC50

Rainbow trout 2.4–16.2 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–severe

Dicamba

1,707 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 125 mg/kg/day

Dog, 2 yr 50 mg/kg day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >4,600 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >1,000 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–extreme

Dichlobenil

>3,160 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr >20 ppm in diet

Pig, 6 mo >50 ppm in diet

Rabbit >1,350 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >5,200 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 7 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild to moderate

Dichlorprop or 2,4-DP

700 mg/kg (M)

500 mg/kg (F)

Rat, 4 mg/kg

Mouse 1,400 mg/kg

LC50

Upland birds, waterfowl >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 1.1 mg/L

Rainbow trout 100–200 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Diclosulam

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat, 0.05 mg/kg

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Most sensitive aquatic species 10-100 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–moderate

Difenzoquat (methylsulfate)

617 mg/kg (M)

373 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr 20 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 4,640 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 696 mg/L

Rainbow trout 711 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–mild

Diflufenzopyr

1,600 to >5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr

28 mg/kg/day (M)

26 mg/kg/day (F)

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50

Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50

Bluegill 135 ppm

Rainbow trout 106 ppm

Skin–very slight

Eye–mild to slight

Dimethenamid

429–1,293 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 50–250 ppm in diet

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 6.4 mg/L

Rainbow trout 2.6 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Dinoterb

25 mg/kg

LC50

Partridges 3–5 ppm in diet

Toxic to fish

Diquat

231–440 mg/kg

Rat reproduction, 1 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >400 mg/kg

LC50

Partridges 270–300 ppm in diet

LC50

Fish 80–210 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild

Dithiopyr

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr <0.5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,260 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 0.7 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.5 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Diuron

3,400 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 25 mg/kg

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail 1,730 ppm

Mallard duck >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 7.4 mg/L

Rainbow trout 4.3 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild

DNOC

25–85 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 0.59 mg/kg/day

Rat 600–2,000 mg/kg

Rabbit 1,000 mg/kg

LD50

Japanese quail 10–25 mg/kg

LC50

Fish 0.2–13 mg/L

Skin–erythema and edema

Eyes–corrosive

Guinea pig–dermal sensitization

EPTC (s-ethyldipropylthiocarbamate)

1,630 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days 20 mg/kg

Rabbit 2,750–5,000 mg/kg

LC50 7 day

Bobwhite quail 20,000 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 27 mg/L

Rainbow trout 19 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–severe

Ethalfluralin

Rat >5,000 mg/kg (dog, cat >200 mg/kg)

Rat, mouse, 90 days 68 mg/kg

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm

LC50

Bluegill 0.03–0.1 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.037–0.136 mg/L

Skin–slight to moderate

Eye–slight

Ethephon

1,600–4,229 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 375 mg/kg/day

Mouse, 78 wk 4.5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Mallard duck >10,000 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 222–300 mg/L

Rainbow trout 254–350 mg/L

Skin–corrosive

Eye–corrosive

Fenoxapropd

2,357 mg/kg (M)

2,500 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 2 yr 0.375 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >1,000 mg/kg

LD50 Japanese quail >5,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bluegill 3.3 mg/L

Rainbow trout 3.4 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–serious nonreversible corneal opacity

Fenoxaprop-ethyld

4,430 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 0.9 mg/kg/day

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 5,620 ppm

LC50

Bluegill 0.31 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.46 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Flamprop-methyl

1,210 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 10 mg/kg/day

Rat >294 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail 4,640 mg/kg

Mallard duck >1,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 4.7 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Florasulam

>6,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LD50 14 day

Japanese quail 175 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout >100 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Fluazifop-p-butyl

3,680–4,096 mg/kg (M)

2,451–2,721 mg/kg (F)e

Rat, 90 days >10 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,400 mg/kg

LD50 5 day

Bobwhite quail >4,659 ppm

Mallard duck >4,321 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.5 mg/L

Rainbow trout 1.4 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–mild

Flucarbazone-sodium

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 35.9 mg/kg/day

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

NOAEC (reproduction)

Mallard duck 233 mg/kg/day

NOAEL (chronic)

Rainbow trout 2.75 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–minimal

Flufenacet

1,617 mg/kg (M)

589 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr 1.29 mg/kg/day

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail >5,317 ppm

Mallard duck >4,970 ppm

LC50

Bluegill 2.26–2.4 ppm

Rainbow trout 3.49–5.84 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–minimal

Flumetsulam

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50

Bluegill >300 ppm

Rainbow trout >293 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Flumiclorac

3,200 to >5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 100 mg/kg/day

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 17.4 mg/L

Rainbow trout 1.1 mg/L

Skin–severe

Eye–moderate

Fluometuron

>8,000 mg/kg

Rat, 103 wk 125 mg/kg/day

Rat >2 g/kg

Rabbit 10 g/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 96 mg/L

Rainbow trout 47 mg/L

Crucian carp 17 mg/L

Fluroxypyr

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 150 mg/kg/day

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Mallard duck >5,000 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 14.3 mg/L

Rainbow trout 13.4–100 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Fluthiacet

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr

57.6 mg/kg/day (M)

30.3 mg/kg/day (F)

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC5096 hr

Bluegill 140 mcg/L

Rainbow trout 43 mcg/L

Skin–none

Eye–minimal

Foramsulfuron

>3,881 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr

849 mg/kg/day (M)

1,135 mg/kg/day (F)

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm

Skin–moderate

Eye–mild

Fosamine ammonium

24,000 mg/kg

Rat, 90 days 1,000 mg/kg

Rabbit >1,683 mg/kg

LD50

Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50

Bluegill 670 mg/L

Rainbow trout 1,000 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate to severe

Glufosinate (ammonium salt)

1,510–2,030 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 5 mg/kg/day

Rat >1,390 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Japanese quail >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 56–75 mg/L

Rainbow trout >26.7 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate to severe

Glyphosate

4,230–5,600 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr >500 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 4,500 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 120 mg/L

Rainbow trout 86 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–slight to moderate

Halosulfuron

1,287 mg/kg

Dog, 13 wk 10 mg/kg/day

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >118 mg/L

Rainbow trout >131 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–slight

Hexazinone

1,690 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 250 mg/kg in diet

Rabbit >5,278 mg/kg

LC50 5–8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 370–420 mg/L

Rainbow trout 320–420 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–severe but reversible

Imazamethabenzmethyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 1,000 ppm

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Imazaquin

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 1,000 ppm

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

Skin–slight

Imazamox

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 40,000 ppm

Rat >4,000 mg/kg

LC50

Mallard duck >5,672 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >119 ppm

Rainbow trout >122 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–none

Imazapic

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 5,000 ppm

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Imazapyr

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr feeding 1,000 ppm

Rat 300 mg/kg/day (teratology)

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >100 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–more severe

Imazethapyr

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 25 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >2,150 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 420 mg/L

Rainbow trout 340 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–irritation reversible

Isoproturon

1,800–2,400 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days

Rat, 2 yr 3 mg/kg/day

Rat >3.2 g/kg

LC50 96 hr

Crucian carp 193 mg/L

Rainbow trout 240 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Isoxaflutole

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 1,200 ppm

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >4,255 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >4.5 mg/L

Rainbow trout >1.7 mg/L

Skin–minimal

Eye–minimal

Linuron

1,200–4,000 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 6.25 mg/kg/day (observed anemia)

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 5–8 day

Japanese quail >5,000 ppm

Mallard duck 3,083 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 16 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Maleic hydrazide

>5,000 mg/kg (acid)

>6,950 mg/kg (Na+ salt)

>3,900 mg/kg (K+ salt)

Dog, 1 yr 25 mg/kg

Rabbit >20,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 1,608 mg/L

Rainbow trout 1,435 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–severe

MCPA

700–1,160 mg/kg

Rat, 7 mo 100 mg/kg/day (lowers wt gain)

Rabbit 3,400–4,800 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail 377 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 90 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

MCPB

4,700 mg/kg

Rat, 6 mo 1.6 mg/kg/day

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 14 mg/L

Rainbow trout 4.3 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–moderate

Mecoprop

930–1,210 mg/kg

Rat, 90 days 3.8 mg/kg/day

Dog, 90 days 15 mg/kg/day

Rabbit 900 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 5,000–5,500 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >100 mg/L

Rainbow trout 124 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–intense

Mesotrione

>5,050 mg/kg

Rat >5,050 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail >2,000 mg/kg

Mallard duck >5,200 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >120 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Metam (sodium and isothiocyanate)

1,800 mg/kg (M)

1,700 mg/kg (F)

97 mg/kg (isothiocyanate)

Rat, 65 days (inhalation, in inspired air) 6 hr/day for 5 days/wk at 0.045 mg/L

Rabbit 10,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail >10,000

Mallard duck >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.047 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.029 mg/L

Skin–corrosive

Eye–corrosive

Methyl bromide

Acute LC50 (inhalation) 4.5 mg/L air

Safe threshold for people 0.065 mg/L air

Acute toxicity

Bluegill 11 mg/L

Skin–severe

Eye–severe

Methyl isothiocyanate

82 mg/kg (M)

Dog, 2 yr 10 mg/L in drinking water

Rabbit 202 mg/kg (F)

145 mg/kg (M)

LC50 5 day

Mallard duck 10,936 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.13 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.37 mg/L

Skin–corrosive

Eye–severe

Metobromuron

2,450–2,500 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 250 mg/kg/day

Dog, 100 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail >20,000 ppm

Mallard duck >4,640 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 4 mg/L

Rainbow trout 3 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–moderate

Metolachlorc

800–2,780 mg/kg

Rat, 90 days 1,000 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days 500 mg/kg

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

Rat >10 g/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 15 mg/L

Rainbow trout 3 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Metosulam

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 10 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Metribuzin

1,090–2,300 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 5 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 2.5 mg/kg

Rat, rabbit >20,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >4,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 80 mg/L

Rainbow trout 64–76 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Napropamide

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 13 wk <100 mg/kg

Rabbit >4,640 mg/kg

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail >5,600 ppm

Mallard duck 7,200 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 20–30 mg/L

Rainbow trout 9–16 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Naptalam

>5,000 mg/kg

1,770 mg/kg (Na+ salt)

Rat, dog, 90 days 1,000 mg/kg (Na+ salt)

Rabbit >20,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail 5,600 ppm

Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 354 mg/L

Rainbow trout 76 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Nicosulfuron

Mouse >5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr >5,000 ppm in diet (M)

Rat, rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >1,000 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Oxadiazon

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat, dog, 2 yr 100 mg/kg

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 12.5 mg/L

Rainbow trout 2 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–mild

Oxyfluorfen

Rat, dog >5,000 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 2 mg/kg

Dog, 2.5 mg/kg

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail >5,000

Mallard duck >4,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.2 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.41 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Paraquat (dichloride)

150–283 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 1.25 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 0.45 mg/kg

Rat >2,000 mg/kg (finished product)

LC50 5 day

Bobwhite quail 981 ppm

Mallard duck 4,048 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout 26 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Pebulate

1,120 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 15 ppm in diet (eye lesions)

Rabbit 4,640 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >2,400 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 7.4 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–mild

Pendimethalin

1,050 to >5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 12.5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail 3,149 ppm

Mallard duck 10,900 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.199 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.138 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild

Phenmedipham

8,000 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr >1,000 ppm in diet

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

Rabbit >10,000 mg/kg

LC50 4 day

Bobwhite quail >2,480 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr Bluegill 760 mg/L

LC50 21 day Rainbow trout >210 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–severe

Picloram

5,000–8,200 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 150 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >4,000 mg/kg

LD50 8 day

Bobwhite quail >2,500

Mallard duck >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 14.5 mg/L

Rainbow trout 19.3 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Prometryn

3,750–5,235 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days <200 ppm in diet

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 5–7 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 10 mg/kg

Rainbow trout 2.5–2.9 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Propanil

1,080 to >2,500 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr <85 ppm in diet

Rabbit >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail 2,861 ppm

Mallard duck 5,627 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 2.3 mg/L

Rainbow trout 4.6 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–serious

Propoxycarbazone

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr

258 mg/kg (M)

55.7 mg/kg (F)

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

Skin–slight

Eye–minimal

Propyzamide

5,620–8,350 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr >7.5 ppm in diet

Rabbit 3,160 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 100 mg/L

Rainbow trout 72 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–moderate

Pyrazon

3,030–3,600 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 1,500 ppm in diet

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bluegill 40 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–slight

Pyridate

1,285–1,412 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 30 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout >1.2 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Pyrithiobac-sodium

4,000 mg/kg

Rat (longterm), 59 mg/kg

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >6,300 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 5.8 mg/L

Rainbow trout 8.2 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Quinclorac

3,060 mg/kg (M)

2,190 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr

142 mg/kg/day (M)

140 mg/kg/day (F)

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >100 mg/L

Skin–irritating

Eye–moderate

Quizalofop-p-ethyl

1,210–1,670 mg/kg (M)

1,182–1,480 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr <10 mg/kg/day

Rat, mouse, rabbit >10,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.46–2.8 mg/L

Rainbow trout 10.7 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Rimsulfuron

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 50 ppm in diet

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail >5,620 ppm

Mallard duck >2,510 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 100 mg/L

Rainbow trout 32 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–mild

Sethoxydim

3,200 mg/kg (M)

2,676 mg/kg (F)

Dog, 1 yr

>8.86 mg/kg (M)

>9.41 mg/kg (F)

Rat, mouse >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,600 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >1,000 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Siduron

>7,500 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 500 ppm in diet

Rabbit >5,500 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >10,000 mg/kg

LC50 48 hr

Crucian carp 18 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–slight

Simazine

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr >5 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >10,200 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail >5,260 ppm

Mallard duck 10,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >100 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

Sodium chlorate

1,200–7,000 mg/kg

Rabbit 500 mg/kg

LC50 48 hr

Fish 10,000 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–moderate

Sulfentrazone

2,416–3,297 mg/kg

Rat, 10 mg/kg/day (oral developmental studies)

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 93.8 mg/L

Rainbow trout >130 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–moderate

Sulfosulfuron

>5,000 mg/kg

Mouse, 90 days 7,000 mg/kg of diet

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Rainbow trout >97 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–slight

Tebuthiuron

644 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr >25 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >200 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >2,500 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 112 mg/L

Rainbow trout 144 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–slight

Thiazopyr

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 0.8 mg/kg/day

Rat >5,000 mg/kg

LD50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck 5,328 mg/kg

LC50

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 3.5 mg/L

Skin–slight

Eye–slight

Thifensulfuron-methyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 25 ppm in diet

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout 100 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Tralkoxydim

1,258 mg/kg (M)

934 mg/kg (F)

Rat (teratogen), 30 mg/kg

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LD50

Mallard duck >3,020 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill >6.1 mg/L

Rainbow trout >7.2 mg/L

Skin–mild

Eye–mild

Triallate

800–2,165 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 15 mg/kg/day (highest tested)

Rabbit 8,200 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 mg/kg

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 1.3 mg/L

Rainbow trout 1.2 mg/L

Skin–moderate

Eye–slight

Triasulfuron

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 129 mg/kg/day

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill and Rainbow trout >100 ppm

Skin–none

Eye–none

Tribenuron-methyl

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 1 yr 875 ppm in diet

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,620 ppm

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 760 mg/L

Rainbow trout 730 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–mild to moderate

Trichloracetic acid

3,200–5,000 mg/kg

Rat >2,000 mg/kg

LD50

Chicken 4,280 mg/kg

Not toxic to fish

Skin–severe

Eye–severe

Triclopyr

630–729 mg/kg

Rat, 2 yr 3 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail 2,935 ppm

Mallard duck >5,401 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 148 mg/L

Rainbow trout 117 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–slight

Trifluralin

>5,000 mg/kg

Dog, 2 yr 18.75 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >2,000 mg/kg

LC50 8 day

Bobwhite quail and Mallard duck >5,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 0.05–0.07 mg/L

Rainbow trout 0.02–0.06 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–moderate

Vernolate

1,200–1,900 mg/kg

Dog, 90 days >38 mg/kg/day

Rabbit >1,955 mg/kg

LC50 7 day

Bobwhite quail 12,000 ppm in diet

LC50 96 hr

Bluegill 8.4 mg/L

Rainbow trout 9.6 mg/L

Skin–none

Eye–none

a NOAEL = No observable adverse effect level, daily dosage or ppm concentration in the diet

b NOAEC = No observable adverse effect concentration

c Liquid

d Obsolete or no active registration

e Technical grade chemical