Merck Manual

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Common Cardiac Medications

Common Cardiac Medications

Drug

Species

Route and Dosage

ACE Inhibitors

Enalapril 

Dog, cat

PO, 0.25–0.5 mg/kg twice daily

Benazepril

Dog, cat

PO, 0.25–0.5 mg/kg daily

Inotropes

Pimobendan

Dog, cat

PO, 0.25–0.3 mg/kg twice daily

Digoxin

Dog

0.0025– 0.005 mg/kg twice daily

Cat

PO, 0.01 mg/kg every other day

Dobutamine

Dog

CRI, 1–20 mcg/kg/minute; start 2.5 mcg/kg/minute

Cat

CRI, 1–5 mcg/kg/minute

Diuretics

Furosemide

Dog, cat

IV, IM, or PO, 1–4 mg/kg 2–4 times daily

Dog

CRI, 0.5–1 mg/kg/hr

Torsemide

Dog, cat

PO, 0.2–0.3 mg/kg 1–3 times daily; typically twice daily

Spironolactone 

Dog, cat

PO, 0.5–2 mg/kg once or twice daily

Hydrochlorothiazide

Dog

PO, 0.5–2 mg/kg every 12–48 hours

Vasodilators

Nitroglycerin 2%

Dog, cat

Topical, 1/4” strip 3–4 times daily for first day

Nitroprusside

Dog

CRI, 1–10 mcg/kg/minute; typically start at 2.5 mcg/kg/minute

Cat

CRI, 0.25–5 mcg/kg/minute

Amlodipine

Dog

PO, 0.1–0.25 mg/kg once or twice daily

Cat

PO, 0.625–1.25 mg once or twice daily

Sildenafil 

Dog, cat

PO, 1–3 mg/kg 2–3 times daily; typically start at 2 mg/kg

Antiarrhythmics

Magnesium chloride

Dog

IV, 0.15–0.3 mEq/kg slow over 5–15 minutes 

Sodium channel blocker

Lidocaine

Dog

2 mg/kg IV bolus over 1–2 minutes, 25–100 mcg/kg/minute CRI; typically start at 50 mcg/kg/minute

Cat

IV, 0.2–0.75 mg/kg bolus, 10–20 mcg/kg/minute

Procainamide

Dog

2–4 mg/kg IV; 20–50 mcg/kg/minute CRI

Mexiletine

Dog

PO, 5–8 mg/kg three times daily

Beta-blockers 

Start low and titrate up 

Atenolol

Dog

PO, 0.5–2 mg/kg twice daily

Cat

PO, 6.25 mg –12.5 mg twice daily

Esmolol

Dog, cat

IV, 0.25–0.5 mg/kg slow bolus over 2–5 minutes, 10–200 mcg/kg/minute

Propranolol

Dog

PO, 0.1–2 mg/kg three times daily

Cat

PO, 2.5–5 mg three times daily 

Carvedilol

Dog

PO, 0.1–1 mg/kg twice daily

Cat

PO, 1.6–3.125 mg twice daily

Potassium channel blocker

Sotalol

Dog, cat

PO, 1–3 mg/kg

twice daily

Amiodarone

Dog

PO, Loading: 8–10 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days; maintenance 5–10 mg/kg daily 

Dog

2 mg/kg IV bolus over 10 minutes; CRI 0.8 mg/kg/hour for 6 hours, then 0.5 mg/kg/hour 

Calcium channel blocker

Diltiazem regular 

Dog, cat

0.05–0.25 mg/kg slow IV bolus over 2–5 minutes, CRI 0.125 mg/kg/hour 

Dog

PO, 0.5–3 mg/kg three times daily

Cat

PO, 7.5–15 mg 2–3 times daily

Diltiazem extended-release

Dog

PO, 3–5 mg/kg twice daily

Vagolytics

Atropine

Dog, cat

IV, IM, or SC 0.04 mg/kg

Glycopyrrolate

Dog, cat

0.01 mg/kg IV; 0.02 mg/kg IM, SQ

Antitussives

Hydrocodone

Dog

PO, 0.22–0.5 mg/kg 2–4 times daily as needed

Butorphanol

Dog

PO, 0.55–1.1 mg/kg 2–4 times daily as needed

Antithrombotics

Clopidogrel

Dog

PO, 1–4 mg/kg daily

Cat

PO, 18.75 mg daily 

Enoxaparin

Dog

SC, 0.8–1 mg/kg 2–4 times daily

Cat

SC, 1 mg/kg 2–4 times daily

Dalteparin

Dog

SC, 150 IU/kg 2–3 times daily

Cat

SC, 100–175 IU/kg 2–3 times daily

Rivaroxaban

Dog

PO, 0.5–1 mg/kg daily

Apixaban

Dog

PO, 0.5 mg/kg 2–3 times daily; reduce if renal disease

Cat

PO, <5 kg: 0.625 mg twice daily, >5 kg: 1.25 mg twice daily