Merck Manual

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Characteristics of Transudates and Exudates in Cattle, Horses, Dogs, and Cats

Characteristics of Transudates and Exudates in Cattle, Horses, Dogs, and Cats

Parameter

Species

Transudate

Exudate

Total protein (g/dL)

All

<2.5

>3

Specific gravity

All

<1.020

>1.025

Cell count (109/L)

Cattle

0.5–5

>8

Horses

0.5–5

>8

Dogs, cats

<3

>5

Color

All

Colorless to yellow

Variable

Turbidity

All

Clear to moderate

Moderate to opaque

Bacteria

All

Absent

May be present