Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

Nonhuman Primate Therapeutics a

Nonhuman Primate Therapeutics a

Antibiotics and Antifungals

Amoxicillin

11 mg/kg/day, IM or SC; 11 mg/kg, PO, twice daily; 62.5 mg, PO, twice daily (lemurs)

Metronidazole

25–50 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for 10 days (gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel disease); 15 mg/kg slow iv twice daily for anaerobic infections

Azithromycin

40 mg/kg, PO, once, then 20 mg/kg/day, PO, for 5 days

Cefazolin

25 mg/kg, IM or IV, twice daily for 10 days

Ceftriaxone

50–100 mg/kg, IM or IV, twice daily

Doxycycline

2.5 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for one day, then 2.5 mg/kg/day, PO

Minocycline

2–15 mg/kg/day, PO

Enrofloxacin

5 mg/kg, IM or PO, once to twice daily for 10 days

Ciprofloxacin

10–20 mg/kg PO, twice daily for monkeys and apes

Erythromycin

30–50 mg/kg, IM or PO, two to three times daily

Gentamicin

3–5 mg/kg, IM or IV, twice daily for 5-7 days

Penicillin G potassium + penicillin G benzathine

20,000–60,000 U/kg, IM, once to twice daily (higher dosage in lemurs)

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

15–50 mg/kg, PO or IM, twice daily; sulfamethoxazole at 20 mg/kg, PO, twice daily (higher dosages for lemurs)

Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanic potassium

Ampicillin/sublactam

7-13 mg/kg, PO, three times daily in monkeys

13 mg/kg, IV, three times daily in monkeys

Ceftazidime

50 mg/kg, IV or IM, three times daily in monkeys

Fluconazole

5 mg/kg, PO, once to twice daily for 10 days for candidiasis in monkeys

Griseofulvin

20 mg/kg, PO, once daily for 30–60 days for dermatophytosis in monkeys and marmosets

Nystatin

100,000 U to 200,000 U, PO, three to four times daily for candidiasis in marmosets and monkeys

Voriconazole

5 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for 21–30 days for aspergillosis in monkeys

Parasiticides

Fenbendazole

50 mg/kg/day, PO, for 5 days, repeated in 2 weeks

Ivermectin

200–300 mcg/kg, SC, IM, or PO, repeated in 14 days

Mebendazole

22 mg/kg/day, PO, for 3 days, repeated in 14 days (for Giardia sp)

Metronidazole

30–50 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for 5–10 days for Giardia in monkeys and marmosets

Praziquantel

5 mg/kg, IM, PO, or SC, once (15–20 mg/kg, PO or IM, for some cestodes; 40 mg/kg, PO or IM, for trematodes)

Pyrantel pamoate

10 mg/kg, PO, for nematodes, most New World monkeys, prosimians, and marmosets

Pyrimethamine

1–2 mg/kg, PO, once daily for treatment of toxoplasmosis in conjunction with other antimalarial drugs

Start with 2 mg/kg for 3 days, then 1 mg/kg for 28 days

Sulfadiazine

100 mg/kg, PO, with pyrimethamine for 28 days

Trimethoprim/sulfa

30 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for 21 days for toxoplasmosis and Encephalitozoon with other antimalarial drugs and supplement with folic acid

Thiabendazole

100 mg/kg, PO, once, repeated in 14 days (owl monkeys); 50 mg/kg/day, PO, for 2 days (Strongyloides); 75–100 mg/kg/day, PO, for 10 days (Entamoeba, Balantidium) in great apes

Paromomycin

10–20 mg/kg, PO, for 10 days for Balantidium, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in both monkeys and marmosets as well as Old World primates

Anesthetics, Analgesics, and Behavior

Ketamine hydrochloride

10–15 mg/kg, IM, for restraint only; ketamine (15 mg/kg) with diazepam (1 mg/kg), IM, or ketamine (8 mg/kg) with midazolam (0.2–1 mg/kg), IM, for additional muscle relaxation

Ketoprofen

2 mg/kg/day, IV or IM

Inhalant gas (isoflurane, Sevoflurane

1%–2%; 1 MAC for sevoflurane maintenance of surgical plane of anesthesia

Flunixin meglumine (analgesic)

0.5– 2 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC, twice daily

Acetaminophin

5–10 mg/kg, PO, four times daily for monkeys and marmosets for mild analgesia and pyrexia. May be used in conjunction with ibuprofen PO

Ibuprofen

10-20 mg/kg, PO, twice daily for inflammation and pain

May be used in conjunction with acetaminophen

Celecoxib

200 mg/animal, PO, once to twice daily for chimpanzee

Meloxicam

0.2 mg/kg initial dose followed by 0.1 mg/kg, PO or SC

Buprenorphine

0.005–0.01 mg/kg, SC, IM, or IV, two to four times daily (great apes)

0.015–0.02 mg/kg, IM, SC, three to four times daily (New World primates)

Butorphanol tartrate

0.02 mg/kg, SC, four times daily (New World primates); 0.02 mg/kg (not to exceed 0.3 mg total), IM (chimpanzees); may cause profound respiratory depression

Fentanyl

As a constant rate infusion, 1–30 mcg/kg, IV, prosimian/monkeys

Monitor closely for respiratory depression

Dexmedetomidine

40 mcg/kg, IM, for anesthesia in combination with ketamine at 20–30 mcg/kg, IM (lemurs) or at 2–6 mg/kg, IM (macaques and baboons)

Atipamezole

Dose at same range as the dose of dexmedetomidine for reversal of the effects IM

Midazolam

0.05–0.1 mg/kg, IV (slow) or IM: 0.1–0.5 mg/kg, IM (with ketamine helps prevent seizures in lemurs); 5 mg/animal, IM (chimpanzees)

Diazepam

1 mg/kg, IV, for seizures in monkeys and marmosets

May also be given IM or PO

Fluoxetine

0.5–8.0 mg/kg, PO

Oxymorphone (opioid analgesic)

0.025–0.075 mg/kg, IM or IV, every 4–6 hours (New World primates); 0.15 mg/kg, SC, IM, or IV, every 4–6 hours (Old World primates); 1–1.5 mg/animal, SC or IM, every 4 hours (chimpanzees)

Propofol

2.5–5 mg/kg, IV bolus induction, 0.3–0.4 mg/kg/min constant-rate infusion (baboons and macaques); 7–8 mg/kg, IV bolus (marmosets, larger nonhuman primates); 1–2 mg/kg, IV bolus (chimpanzees), followed by infusion to effect; oxygen support always available

Tiletamine-zolazepam

3–5 mg/kg, IM, for restraint only (great apes), severe ataxia noted during recovery: 1–2.5 mg/kg, IM (New World primates); 1.5–3 mg/kg, IM (macaques)

a All are extra-label uses.