Merck Manual

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Feeding Guidelines for Large-Breed Dairy Cattle a

Feeding Guidelines for Large-Breed Dairy Cattle a

Dry (Far off)

Close (Close up)

Cow - Fresh

Cow - Early

Cow - Mid

Cow - Late

6-mo Heifer

12-mo Heifer

18-mo Heifer

24-mo Heifer (Close up)

Body wt, lb (kg)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

1,500 (675)

440 (200)

660 (300)

1,000 (450)

1,375 (625)

DMI, lb (kg/day)

32 (14)

22 (10)

34 (15)

66 (30)

52 (24)

45 (20)

11 (5)

16 (7)

25 (11)

23 (10)

Milk, lbb (kg/day)

77 (35)

120 (55)

77 (35)

55 (25)

CP (%)c

9.9

12.4

19.5

16.7

15.2

14.1

12.3

11.4

8.8

15.0

RDP (%)

7.7

9.6

10.5

9.8

9.7

9.5

9.4

9.5

8.8

10.1

RUP (%)

2.2

2.8

9.0

6.9

5.5

4.6

2.9

1.9

0.004

4.9

MP (%)

6.0

8.0

13.8

11.6

10.2

9.2

7.2

7.0

5.3

9.7

NEL, Mcal/lb (Mcal/kg)

0.60 (1.32)

0.65 (1.43)

0.82d (1.8)

0.73 (1.61)

0.67 (1.47)

0.62 (1.36)

0.72 (1.58)

ME, Mcal/lb (Mcal/kg)

0.93 (2.05)

1.03 (2.27)

0.82 (1.80)

NDF (%)

40

35

30

28

30

32

30

32

33

35

ADF (%)

30

25

21

19

21

24

20

22

24

25

NFC (%)

30

34

35

38

35

32

35

30

25

34

Calcium (%)

0.44

0.48

0.79

0.60

0.61

0.62

0.41

0.41

0.37

0.40

Phosphorus (%)

0.22

0.26

0.42

0.38

0.35

0.32

0.28

0.23

0.18

0.23

Magnesium (%)

0.11

0.40

0.29

0.21

0.19

0.18

0.11

0.11

0.08

0.40

Chlorine (%)

0.13

0.20

0.20

0.29

0.26

0.24

0.11

0.12

0.10

0.20

Sodium (%)

0.10

0.14

0.34

0.22

0.23

0.22

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.14

Potassium (%)

0.51

0.62

1.24

1.07

1.04

1.00

0.47

0.48

0.46

0.55

Sulfur (%)

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

Vitamin A (IU/day)

80,300

83,270

75,000

75,000

75,000

75,000

24,000

24,000

36,000

75,000

Vitamin D (IU/day)

21,900

22,700

21,000

21,000

21,000

21,000

6,000

9,000

13,500

20,000

Vitamin E (IU/day)

1,168

1,200

545

545

545

545

240

240

360

1,200

Adapted, with permission, from Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 2001, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

a DMI, dry matter intake; CP, crude protein; RDP, rumen degradable protein; RUP, rumen undegraded protein; MP, metabolizable protein; NEL, net energy lactation; ME, metabolizable energy; NDF, neutral detergent fiber; ADF, acid detergent fiber; NFC, non-fiber carbohydrate. Trace mineral added to ration (expressed as ppm): cobalt: 0.11; copper 10–18; iodine: 0.3–0.4; iron: 13–130; manganese: 14–24; selenium: 0.30; zinc: 22–70.

b Milk components: 3.5% fat, 3.0% true protein, and 4.8% lactose.

c All concentration values are on a dry-matter basis.

d 0.82 Mcal/lb DM is the maximum energy concentration that can be formulated without resulting in insufficient dietary fiber or excess fat concentrations. This energy concentration will typically not meet the energy requirements at this lactation stage and these cows will lose weight.