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Selected Drugs Used in Llamas and Alpacas

Selected Drugs Used in Llamas and Alpacas

Drug

Dosage

Comment

Sedation/anesthesia

Butorphanol

0.1–0.2 mg/kg, IM or IV

For sedation

Xylazine

0.3–0.4 mg/kg, IV

For recumbency

0.1–0.2 mg/kg, IV

For sedation

KXB (ketamine [4 mg/kg], xylazine [0.4 mg/kg], butorphanol [0.04 mg/kg])

1 mL/22.5 kg, IM (llamas); 1 mL/18 kg, IM (alpacas)

Mix 1,000 mg ketamine with 100 mg xylazine and 10 mg butorphanol; if needed to maintain anesthesia, ½ initial dose can be given IV in the medial saphenous vein

Antimicrobials

Amikacin

12 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours for 7 days

Ampicillin sodium

6 mg/kg, IM or IV, every 12 hours for 10–14 days

Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid

6.6 mg/kg, SC, every 7 days for 6 weeks

Ceftiofur sodium

2.2 mg/kg, IM or IV, every 12 hours for 10–14 days

Enrofloxacin

5 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours for 10 days

Gentamicin

4–5 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours for 5 days

Metronidazole

25 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days

Procaine penicillin G aqueous

20,000–40,000 U/kg, SC, every 24 hours for 3–5 days

Tetracycline (long-acting formulation)

18–20 mg/kg, SC, every 2–3 days for 5 treatments

Tobramycin

4 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours for 5–7 days

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

Trimethoprim at 3 mg/kg combined with sulfamethoxazole at 15 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours for 10 days

NSAIDs

Flunixin meglumine

1.1 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours

Meloxicam

1 mg/kg, PO, every 3 days

Phenylbutazone

2–4 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours

Reproductive

Cloprostenol

100–150 mcg, IM, repeated in 24 hours

Dinoprost tromethamine

5 mg, SC, repeated in 24 hours

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

5,000 U, IV, once

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

1 mcg/kg, IM, once

Anthelmintics

Albendazole

10 mg/kg, PO, repeated in 14 days

Clorsulon

7–14 mg/kg, PO, repeated in 45–60 days

Fenbendazole

5–10 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 3–5 days

15–20 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 3 days for treatment of Trichuris infestation

Ivermectin

0.2 mg/kg, SC or IM, repeated in 10 days

Pyrantel pamoate

18 mg/kg, every 24 hours for 3 days

Antiprotozoal

Ponazuril

20 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 3 days. Ideally should be followed by sulfadimethoxine, 55 mg/kg, SC, on day 1, then 27.5 mg/kg, SC, for 2 additional days

For treatment of Eimeria macusaniensis

Gastrointestinal

Omeprazole

0.4 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours, continued 7–10 days after clinical improvement

Pantoprazole

1 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours, continued 7–10 days after clinical improvement

2 mg/kg, IV or SC, every 24 hours, continued 7–10 days after clinical improvement

Mange, local therapy

Mixture of:

Shake before use and apply mixture to local lesions with a paintbrush every 5 days for 5 treatments

Mineral oil

2 oz

DMSO (10%)

2 oz

Ivermectin (injectable formulation)

4 mL

Gentamicin

1 g

Dosage information from Jensen J. Camelid Drug Formulary. Game Ranch Health; 2006; Cebra C, Tibary A, Johnson LW, Anderson D, Van Saun RJ, eds. Llama and Alpaca Care. Elsevier; 2014.