Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link
Natural hosts and geographic distribution of Besnoitia spp

Natural hosts and geographic distribution of Besnoitia spp

Species

Intermediate hosts

Definitive hosts

Geographic distribution

B besnoiti

Bovine, antelope (Aepyceros melampus), impala, blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

Unknowne

Africa, Asia, Europe, and Venezuela

B bennetti

Donkey (Equus africanus asinus), horse (E ferus caballus) and zebra (E zebra, E quagga, E grevyi)

Unknowne

Africa, Asia, US, and France

B caprae

Goat (Capra aegagrus hircus)

Unknowne

Iran and Kenya

B tarandi

Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Unknowne

Canada, Finland, Russia, and Sweden

B akodoni

Akodon motensisa

Unknown

Brazilf

B jellisoni

Dipodomys sppa, Peromyscus maniculatusa

Unknown

US

B darlingi

Ameivab, Basiliscusb, Didelphis marsupialisc

Cat (Felis catus)

US and Panama

B neotomofelis

Neotoma micropusa

Cat (Felis catus)

USg

B oryctofelisi

Oryctolagus cuniculusd

Cat (Felis catus)

Argentinah

B wallacei

Rattus exulansa

Cat (Felis catus)

Australia, Hawaii, Japan, and Kenya

arodent

breptile

cmarsupial

dlagomorph

eA carnivorous definitive host is suspected for B besnoiti. One study (Peteshev VM, Galuzo IG, Polomoshnov AP. Cats—definitive hosts of Besnoitia (Besnoitia besnoiti). Izvest Akad Nauk Kazakh Ser Biol 1974;1:33–38) suggested the role of felids as definitive hosts. However, extensive studies carried out by other authors have been inconclusive.

fDubey JP, Sreekumar C, Lindsay DS, Hill D, Rosenthal BM, Venturini L, Venturini MC, Greiner EC. Besnoitia oryctofelisi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from domestic rabbits. Parasitology. 2003 Jun;126(Pt 6):521-39. PMID: 12879849.

gDubey JP, Yabsley MJ. Besnoitia neotomofelis n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the southern plains woodrat ( Neotoma micropus). Parasitology. 2010 Oct;137(12):1731-47. doi: 10.1017/S0031182010000636. Epub 2010 Jun 21. PMID: 20561393.

hDubey JP, Sreekumar C, Rosenthal BM, Lindsay DS, Grisard EC, Vitor RW. Biological and molecular characterization of Besnoitia akodoni n.sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the rodent Akodon montensis in Brazil. Parassitologia. 2003 Jun;45(2):61-70. PMID: 15266998.