Merck Manual

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Vaccines and Immunotherapy in Animals


Ian Tizard

, BVMS, PhD, DACVM, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University

Last full review/revision Jul 2020 | Content last modified Jul 2020

The adaptive immune system responds to microbial invasion by producing protective antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, or both. Appropriate administration of specific antigens, as in a vaccine, can result in effective, persistent immunity to infection. Microbial molecules also stimulate innate immune responses. These innate responses also promote adaptive immunity and can be used in the form of adjuvants to significantly increase responses to vaccines.

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