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Lobular Dissecting Hepatitis in Small Animals

By

Sharon A. Center

, BS, DVM, DACVIM, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University

Last full review/revision May 2015 | Content last modified May 2015

Lobular dissecting hepatitis is a unique hepatic reaction pattern rather than a unique hepatic syndrome. The histologic features are typified by liver injury associated with intrasinusoidal nonsuppurative inflammatory infiltrates leading to panlobular sinusoidal fibrosis. Although more commonly described in juvenile to young adult dogs and in a small group of related Standard Poodles, this disorder seemingly has no breed, gender, or age predilection. Weight loss and ascites, with or without jaundice, are common clinical features. Laboratory abnormalities include hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, low BUN, and increased TSBA concentrations in nonjaundiced dogs. Liver enzymes may be normal or mildly or markedly increased. APSSs develop due to acquired intrahepatic sinusoidal portal hypertension. Hepatic copper concentrations are not consistently increased. The syndrome commonly progresses to cirrhosis. Supportive treatment is recommended for HE, ascites, and control of fibroplasia and inflammation as described previously. Colchicine (0.03 mg/kg, PO, daily to every other day) has been used to control fibrosis and sinusoidal inflammation in some dogs. Other dogs have been managed with more conventional immunomodulatory protocols with PhosChol® (polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine with 52% dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine, 25–50 mg/kg/day), used as an antifibrotic with fewer adverse affects. This is a poorly understood and characterized syndrome and in some cases may reflect hepatotoxin exposure.

OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER
Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Overview of Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Hematology in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Coagulation Tests in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Enzyme Activity in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Other Serum Biochemical Measures in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Hepatic Function Tests in Small Animals
Imaging in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Cholecystocentesis in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Liver Cytology in Small Animals
Liver Biopsy in Small Animals
Pathologic Changes in Bile in Small Animals
Nutrition in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Small Animals
Hepatic Encephalopathy in Small Animals
Portal Hypertension and Ascites in Small Animals
Portosystemic Vascular Malformations in Small Animals
Acquired Portosystemic Shunts in Small Animals
Other Hepatic Vascular Disorders in Small Animals
Hepatotoxins in Small Animals
Infectious Diseases of the Liver in Small Animals
Feline Hepatic Lipidosis
Biliary Cirrhosis in Small Animals
Canine Cholangiohepatitis
Canine Chronic Hepatitis
Lobular Dissecting Hepatitis in Small Animals
Canine Vacuolar Hepatopathy
Metabolic Diseases Affecting the Liver in Small Animals
Hepatocutaneous Syndrome in Small Animals
Nodular Hyperplasia in Small Animals
Hepatic Neoplasia in Small Animals
Miscellaneous Liver Diseases in Small Animals
Diseases of the Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Biliary System in Small Animals
Cholecystitis in Small Animals
Canine Gallbladder Mucocele
Other Disorders of the Gallbladder in Small Animals
Other Disorders of the Bile Ducts in Small Animals
Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction in Small Animals
Cholelithiasis in Small Animals
Biliary Tree Rupture and Bile Peritonitis in Small Animals
Feline Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis Syndrome
Hepatobiliary Fluke Infection in Small Animals
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