Merck Manual

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Professional Version

Clostridial Vaccines for Animals


Henry R. Stämpfli

, DMV, Dr Med Vet, DACVIM-LAIM, Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph;

Olimpo J. Oliver-Espinosa

, DVM, MSc, DVSc, National University of Colombia

Reviewed/Revised Jul 2021 | Modified Oct 2022

Vaccination is frequently practiced for protection of animals against clostridial diseases. A wide variety of vaccines is available, singly or in combinations that consist of bacterins, toxoids, or mixtures of bacterins and toxoids. Single vaccination with most clostridial vaccines does not provide adequate levels of protection and must be followed by a booster dose within 3–6 weeks. Vaccination of young animals does not yield adequate protective immunity until they are at least 1–2 months old. Therefore, most vaccination strategies target the pregnant dam so that maximal immunity is transferred to the neonate via colostrum. Most commercial vaccines are inactivated and usually contain 2-, 4-, 7-, or 8-way combinations of clostridial organisms/toxoids. These should be optimally timed for provision of maximal protection at the most likely age of susceptibility.

Tetanus toxoid is commonly administered as a single vaccine in horses but is often administered in combination in sheep, goats, and cattle. In sheep and goats, a common combination is tetanus toxoid plus Clostridium perfringens types C and D. In cattle, a combination frequently administered in feedlots is a 4-way vaccine that consists of killed cultures of C chauvoei, C septicum, C novyi, and C sordellii to protect against blackleg and malignant edema. A more complex clostridial vaccine that contains C perfringens types C and D in addition to the components of the 4-way vaccine may be administered to protect cattle against enterotoxemias Enterotoxemias in Animals Type A strains of C perfringens are commonly found as part of the normal intestinal microflora of animals and lack some of the powerful toxins produced by strains of other types. C... read more as well. The addition of C haemolyticum extends the protection to include bacillary hemoglobinuria Bacillary Hemoglobinuria in Animals Bacillary hemoglobinuria is an acute toxemia caused by Clostridium haemolyticum, a soil-borne organism. After ingestion, spores remain in the liver until stimulated to germinate by conditions... read more . The clostridial vaccines often cause tissue reactions and swelling and should therefore be administered to cattle in the neck and by the subcutaneous rather than the intramuscular route.

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