Stomatoscopy, esophagoscopy, and gastroscopy. A) Oral cavity of a radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) demonstrating the choana and hard palate (p), fleshy tongue (t), and glottis (arrow). B) Air-distended esophagus of a Burmese python (Python bivittatus). C) Saline-infusion view of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) esophagus. D) Stomach of a savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus) with normal ruggal folds (arrows). E) Gastric hypertrophy in a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) with cryptosporidiosis. F) Leiomyoma (l) obstructing the pyloric outflow in another corn snake that presented with chronic regurgitation.
Courtesy of Dr. Stephen Divers.