Local anesthesia and nerve blocks
2–4 mg/kg, locally infiltrated into target tissue
Doses >4 mg/kg are associated with toxicosis.
1–2 mL, epidurally
Do not add epinephrine.
0.05–0.2 mg/kg, IV
Flumazenil 0.1–0.2 mg/kg, IV
0.05–0.1 mg/kg, IM or IV
Naloxone 0.03 mg/kg, IM
Butorphanol can be added to xylazine or other α2-adrenergic agonists for increased sedation and analgesia.
Llamas: 0.25–0.35 mg/kg, IV
Alpacas: 0.35–0.45 mg/kg, IV
Atipamezole at 0.1 times the dose of xylazine in milligrams, IM
Llamas: 0.08–0.15 mg/kg, IV; or 0.15–0.2 mg/kg, IM or SC
Alpacas: 0.15–0.2 mg/kg, IV; or 0.2–0.3 mg/kg, IM or SC
Reverse with atipamezole at 0.1 times the dose of xylazine in milligrams, IM
Triple drip (5% guaifenesin [1 L],
ketamine [1,000 mg/L], xylazine [50–100 mg/L])
Procedures < 60 min that require recumbency and excellent muscle relaxation
Induction: 1 mL/kg, IV
Maintenance: 2 mL/kg/h, IV, CRI
Short, minor procedures, such as castrations, that require recumbency
Ketamine (0.22–0.55 mg/kg) + xylazine (0.22–0.55 mg/kg) + butorphanol (0.08–0.11 mg/kg), all combined in one syringe, IV
This combination can also be given IM. Sedation will be slow onset and will not always cause recumbency.