Merck Manual

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Common Causes of Peritonitis

Common Causes of Peritonitis

Species

Cause

Cattle

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis Traumatic reticuloperitonitis develops as a consequence of perforation of the reticulum. It is important as a differential diagnosis of other diseases marked by stasis of the GI tract, because... read more ; rumenitis; abomasal ulcer Abomasal Ulcers in Cattle Abomasal ulcers affect mature cattle and calves and have several different manifestations. Common clinical signs include anorexia, bruxism, abdominal pain, occult blood in the feces, and tachycardia... read more Abomasal Ulcers in Cattle (perforation); abomasal volvulus Left or Right Displaced Abomasum and Abomasal Volvulus in Cattle Abomasal displacement and volvulus are common disorders of high-producing dairy cattle. Clinical signs include anorexia and decreased milk production. With abomasal volvulus, clinical deterioration... read more Left or Right Displaced Abomasum and Abomasal Volvulus in Cattle ; cecal torsion; ulcerative colitis and proctitis (rare); dystocia Dystocia Management Dystocia management must begin with proper heifer development. Fetopelvic disproportion is a major contributing cause of dystocia. Calf birth weight, the size of the pelvic area of the dam,... read more (uterine torsion, cesarean section); metritis or pyometra; abdominal surgery; intestinal, rectal, or uterine rupture; liver or abdominal abscess rupture; omphalitis (calves); fat necrosis/pancreatitis; neoplasia (eg, mesothelioma, ileal adenocarcinoma); iatrogenic (eg, rectal perforation, liver biopsy, intraperitoneal injection, rumenocentesis); green algae Algal Poisoning of Animals Most instances of algal poisoning of domestic animals and many affecting wildlife are caused by cyanobacteria that grow in freshwater systems worldwide. Clinical signs depend on the specific... read more Algal Poisoning of Animals infection (rare); Setaria infection (rare)

Horses

Small ruminants

New World camelids

Sequela of parasitic migration/acute hepatitis (dicrocoeliosis of special importance); perforating third-compartment or duodenal ulcers; sequela of urolithiasis/ruptured urinary bladder; traumatic reticuloperitonitis Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis Traumatic reticuloperitonitis develops as a consequence of perforation of the reticulum. It is important as a differential diagnosis of other diseases marked by stasis of the GI tract, because... read more (rare)

Pigs

Glässer disease Glässer Disease in Pigs Glässer disease is caused by infection with Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis. The most common form is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis and polyarthritis, but septicemia with sudden... read more (Haemophilus parasuis); intestinal (ileal) perforation; dystocia; sequela of septicemic infections (Salmonella Choleraesuis, Streptococcus suis); polyserositis (Mycoplasma hyorhinis)

Dogs and cats