Merck Manual

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Professional Version

Prolapse of the Oviduct in Poultry

By

Rodrigo A. Espinosa

, DVM, DACPV, Aviagen

Last full review/revision Aug 2019 | Content last modified Oct 2020
Topic Resources

When an egg is laid, the vagina everts through the cloaca to deliver the egg. If there has been injury to the vagina, such as from a large or double-yolk egg, or if the hen is fat, the vagina may not retract immediately, leaving it exposed for a short time. This may result in cannibalism Cannibalism in Poultry Cannibalism stems from aggressive behavior of chickens and turkeys that may begin by feather pecking by socially dominant birds. It may also involve vent pecking immediately after oviposition... read more . When the protruding organ is pecked by other hens, the complete oviduct and parts of the adjacent intestinal tract may be pulled from the abdominal cavity (“peckout”). Bleeding from the vent is observed as a result of pecking. Alternatively, the vagina swells, cannot retract, and remains prolapsed (“blowout”). The hen dies from shock.

Prolapse has been associated with:

  • excessive/premature photostimulation

  • poor body weight uniformity

  • early laying (inadequate body size)

  • large eggs

  • double-yolked eggs

  • obesity

Cannibalism may be prevented by beak trimming, managing light intensity, maintaining appropriate stocking density, and avoiding nutritional deficiencies.

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