Diseases of the urinary system can result from a variety of pathologic processes, and appropriate therapy (as discussed in the following chapters) depends on the location, severity, and cause of the problem. Also see Systemic Pharmacotherapeutics of the Urinary System. If the condition is not life threatening, appropriate diagnostic samples should be collected before initiating therapy. It is important to remember that some diagnostic tests and treatments have the potential to cause significant harm. If the specific cause cannot be determined, nonspecific and supportive therapy (eg, monitoring fluids, treating acidosis) should be instituted.