Merck Manual

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Ian Rodney Tizard, BVMS, BSc, PhD, DSc (Hons), DACVM

Specialties and Expertise

  • Veterinary pathobiology; Immunology; Avian diseases


  • BVMS and BSc: University of Edinburgh
  • PhD: University of Cambridge
  • DSc (Hons): University of Guelph


  • Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Microbiologists (ACVM)

Select Awards, Achievements, and Publications

  • Tizard IR, Musser JB. Great American Diseases: Their Effects on the Course of American History. Academic Press; 2022.
  • Tizard IR. Autoimmune Diseases of Domestic Animals. Elsevier; 2022.
  • Tizard IR. Allergies and Hypersensitivity Disease in Animals. Elsevier; 2022.
  • Tizard IR. Vaccines for Veterinarians. Elsevier; 2021.
  • Tizard IR. Veterinary Immunology. 10th ed. Elsevier; 2018.
  • Tizard IR. A History of Vaccines and their opponents. Academic Press:2023
  • Tizard IR. Comparative Immunology of the Mammals. Academic Press. 2023

Manual Chapters and Commentaries