Dose & Route
Adverse Effects or Other Considerations
0.5–1 mg/kg, SC
Initial dosing q 12 h, 3 times, then weekly
Vitamin K administered to all jaundiced animals due to suspected hepatobiliary disease; dose at initial presentation to avoid procedural delays because of bleeding risks, especially in cats. Avoid IV: may cause anaphylactoid reaction. Excess administration (ie, daily) in cats can cause Heinz body hemolysis.
0.3–1 mcg/kg, SC or IV
Effect onset 30 min to 8 h, one time
Mobilizes preformed large VWF monomers from endothelial stores; repeated dosing thus has decreased to no effects within 6 h. Desmopressin provokes water retention with potential to worsen ascites, but intermittent single-use dose does not pose this hazard.
50–100 mg/kg, IV
15 mg/kg, PO
At least 1 h
q 8 h
Demonstrated to be well tolerated, with rare GI upset. Rapid IV dosing may cause bradycardia and hypotension. No evidence that it generates a hypercoagulable status, although it has potential to exacerbate or slow recanalization of preexisting thrombi. Treatment response best monitored with thromboelastography.
1.1–3 mg/kg, PO (dogs)
18.85 mg, PO (cats)
q 24 h (dogs & cats)
A single oral loading dose (eg, 4–10 mg/kg for dogs; 37.5 mg total dose for cats) may accelerate achievement of therapeutic plasma concentrations. Use of NSAIDs to suppress platelet aggregation is not recommended for patients with liver disease.
Indirect inhibition of FXa:
Low–molecular weight heparins (indirect inhibitor via AT of FXa, thrombin & other factors)
0.8 mg/kg, SC (dog)
0.75–1 mg/kg, SC (cat)
q 6–8 h (dog)
q 6–12 h (cat)
Specific monitoring for anti-FXa activity improves therapeutic dosing.1
100–175 U/kg, SC (dog)
75 U/kg, SC (cat)
q 8 h (dog)
q 6–8 h (cat)
Specific monitoring for anti-FXa activity improves therapeutic dosing.a
Direct FXa inhibitor
0.5–2 mg/kg, PO (dog)
0.5–1 mg/kg, PO (cats)
q 24 h (dogs & cats)
Dosing for healthy dogs effective at 2 mg/kg; animals ill with liver disease may require decreased dose. Monitoring should tailor dose. PT clotting time shown to have good correlation with drug-specific assessment method. Establish patient baseline for comparison. Feeding and use of gastroprotectants did not affect bioavailability.
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VWF, von Willebrand factor. AT, antithrombin. PT, prothrombin time.