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Drugs to Avoid or Use with Caution in South American Camelids

Drugs to Avoid or Use with Caution in South American Camelids


Adverse Effect




Toxicosis at doses >4 mg/kg characterized by lethargy, ataxia, slow and labored breathing, weakness, hypotension, decreased consciousness

Use at lower doses of 2–4 mg/kg

Diazepam at 0.1–0.5 mg/kg, IV

Glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisolone, etc)

Abortion, fetal death, and complications of pregnancy, including retained placenta and uterine prolapse

Do not use any steroid-containing product in a pregnant female camelid, including topicals; steroids should be avoided in all animals having contact with a pregnant dam, because even mild topical contact can cause abortion



Death from cardiovascular toxicity due to calcium channel blockade

Do not use this drug in camelids


Ceftiofur (long-acting formulation given IV)

Neurologic signs, including blindness

Do not use IV in camelids; can be used SC


Death following initial signs of anxiety, hyperesthesia, hypersalivation, tachypnea, convulsions, hypotension, and gastrointestinal hypermotility/diarrhea

Use atipamezole or yohimbine to reverse α2-adrenergic agonists


Dinoprost tromethamine (prostaglandin F2α)

Rapid death, likely due to bronchiolar constriction and pulmonary edema

Do not use


Leptospirosis 5-way killed vaccine

Associated with type-2 hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis

Avoid or use with caution and pretreat with antihistamines

If a reaction occurs, patient can be treated with antihistamines

Atropine, both ophthalmic and parenteral formulations

Causes long-lasting pupillary dilation lasting as long as a week

Keep out of direct sunlight until papillary response is normal


B-complex vitamin

Pruritus or hyperexcitement

Avoid in animals with known hypersensitivity

Antihistamines can be used for treatment

Topical insecticides including eprinomectin and 10% permethrin

Dermatitis and blistering

Avoid in animals with known sensitivity

Supportive care, analgesics