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Malignant Hyperthermia in Dogs

By

Joseph Harari

, MS, DVM, DACVS, Veterinary Surgical Specialists, Spokane, WA

Last full review/revision Nov 2020 | Content last modified Nov 2020

Malignant hyperthermia is a hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by catabolism and contracture, usually secondary to inhalant anesthetic agents and stress. It is seen most frequently in heavily muscled dogs. Abnormal calcium regulation, glycogenolysis, and contractile protein activity result in production of heat, CO2, and lactic acid.

Clinical signs include tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, muscle rigidity, and cardiopulmonary failure. Signs develop 5–30 minutes after exposure to the anesthetic agent. Treatment consists of immediate cessation of anesthesia and hyperventilation with oxygen. IV fluid therapy, corticosteroids, and ice packs are also used. Dantrolene, a muscle relaxant, may be given at 2–5 mg/kg, IV. Prognosis is poor in severe cases. Urinary output, serum potassium levels, and cardiac function should be monitored.

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Musculoskeletal
In all animals, the motor unit of skeletal muscle consists of the motor neuron, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle fibers. Muscle dysfunction—such as ataxia, paresis, or paralysis—most commonly originates in which of the following locations?
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