Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

Loading

Glycopeptides

By

Dawn Merton Boothe

, DVM, PhD, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University

Last full review/revision Nov 2015 | Content last modified Nov 2015

Vancomycin is a complex glycopeptide that binds to precursors of the peptidoglycan layer in bacterial cell walls. This effect prevents cell wall synthesis and produces a rapid bactericidal effect in dividing bacteria. Its efficacy is time dependent. Vancomycin is active against most gram-positive bacteria but is not effective against gram-negative cells because of their large size and poor penetrability. Resistance to vancomycin does not readily develop. The drug is widely distributed in the body. Excretion (in active form) is via the kidneys; in renal insufficiency, striking accumulations may develop. The plasma half-life in dogs is 2–3 hr. The only indication for use of parenteral vancomycin is serious infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although poorly absorbed, oral vancomycin is used to treat antibiotic-associated enterocolitis, especially if caused by Clostridium difficile. Febrile reactions and thrombophlebitis (because of tissue irritation) at injection sites may be seen. Hypersensitivity reactions are seen infrequently. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity were fairly common in the past but are rare today because of fewer impurities in the final form.

Others also read

Also of Interest

Videos

View All
Administering Antibiotics in Cattle
Video
Administering Antibiotics in Cattle
Dr. Peter Constable of the Veterinary Manual Editorial Board discusses the administration...
Using a metered dose inhaler and spacer in a cat
Video
Using a metered dose inhaler and spacer in a cat
This cat is easily treated with a fluticasone inhaler and the Aerokat spacer.

SOCIAL MEDIA

TOP