Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Diabetes Insipidus in Animals Diabetes insipidus is caused by a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or an inability of the kidneys to respond to ADH. It results in production of large volumes of dilute urine, which prompts... read more is a physiological condition in which the kidneys fail to concentrate urine despite adequate amounts of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Central (pituitary-dependent) diabetes insipidus develops when there is a lack of ADH production.
Animals with central diabetes insipidus can be administered desmopressin acetate. The nasal spray formulation can be used, administered into the conjunctival sac. Alternatively, the parenteral form or oral tablets can be administered.
Thiazide diuretics (eg, chlorothiazide) may decrease polyuria by 30%–50% in animals with nephrogenic or central diabetes insipidus. Inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle leads to decreased total body sodium and contraction of the extracellular fluid volume. The net effect is to increase sodium and water reabsorption in the proximal renal tubule.