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Find information on animal health topics, written for the veterinary professional.


The following abbreviations are used throughout the text; other abbreviations are expanded at first mention in the chapter or sub-chapter.

ad lib as much as desired
ADP adenosine diphosphate
ALT alanine aminotransferase
AST aspartate aminotransferase
ATP adenosine triphosphate
bid twice a day
bpm beats per minute
BUN blood urea nitrogen
C Celsius (Centigrade)
cal calorie(s)
CBC(s) complete blood count(s)
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CFU colony-forming unit
cm centimeter(s)
CNS central nervous system
CK creatine kinase (CPK, creatine phosphokinase)
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CT computed tomography
cu cubic
DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
dL deciliter(s)
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
ECG electrocardiogram
eg for example
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPG eggs per gram (of feces)
et seq and the following one(s)
EU European Union
F Fahrenheit
FDA Food and Drug Administration
fL femtoliter(s)
ft foot, feet
g gram(s)
gal. gallon(s)
GI gastrointestinal
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone
H&E hematoxylin and eosin
Hgb hemoglobin
hr hour(s)
ie that is
Ig immunoglobulin (with class following: A, D, E, G, or M)
IL interleukin
IM intramuscular(ly)
in. inch(es)
IP intraperitoneal(ly)
IU international unit(s)
IV intravenous(ly)
kcal kilocalorie(s)
kg kilogram(s)
L liter(s)
LDH lactate dehydrogenase
lb pound(s)
m meter(s)
M molar
Mcal megacalorie(s)
mcg microgram
ME metabolizable energy
mEq milliequivalent(s)
mg milligram(s)
min minute(s)
mL milliliter(s)
mm millimeter(s)
mo month(s)
mol mole(s)
mOsm milliosmole(s)
nm nanometer(s)
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
NRC National Research Council
NSAID(s) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug(s)
OIE Office International des Épizooties
oz ounce(s)
p/pp page/pages
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PCV packed cell volume
pH negative logarithm of hydrogen ion activity
PO per os, orally
ppb part(s) per billion
ppm part(s) per million
qid four times a day
qs ad quantity sufficient to make
RBC(s) red blood cell(s)
RNA ribonucleic acid
SC subcutaneous(ly)
sec second(s)
SI units International System of Units
SPF specific pathogen free
sq square
tbsp tablespoon(s)
TDN total digestible nutrients
tid three times a day
tsp teaspoon(s)
U unit(s)
UK United Kingdom
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
USA United States of America
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (former)
WBC(s) white blood cell(s)
wk week(s)
wt weight
yr year(s)
α alpha
β beta
δ delta
ε epsilon
γ gamma
λ lambda
μ micro, mu
κ kappa
σ sigma