Merck Manual

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Pet Owner Version

Introduction to Diseases Spread between Animals and People (Zoonoses)


Anna Rovid Spickler

, DVM, PhD, Center for Food Security & Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University

Reviewed/Revised Jun 2020 | Modified Nov 2022

Diseases passed between animals and people (called zoonotic diseases or zoonoses) present an ongoing public health concern. Many organisms (such as bacteria and viruses) that infect animals can also cause disease in people. These organisms can be passed on in a number of ways. Contact with the animal itself is one way that disease is spread, but other ways include contact with urine, feces, or respiratory secretions of an infected animal, or contact with other items in the animal’s environment. Disease can also be spread through scratches or bites by a pet, or by insects that carry the infection from animals to humans.

Many known zoonotic diseases List of Zoonoses The zoonoses table in the Public Health section of the professional version of the MSD Veterinary Manual lists the most important zoonoses that have been documented. Many of these are quite... read more are passed from wild animals to people, or from wild animals to pets to people. Exposure to animals kept as pets is steadily increasing as the number of pets increases in the United States and other countries. The different types of animals kept as pets is also increasing. Exotic pets such as prairie dogs have become popular in many parts of the world. Such animals have brought diseases out of the wild and into human homes. For example, in 2003 an outbreak of monkeypox (a rare viral disease) occurred in people who were exposed to the virus by recently purchased prairie dogs. It was later determined that the prairie dogs likely were exposed to the virus when they came into contact with another exotic species, the Gambian rat, at a pet distributor.

In addition, exposure to wild animals is increasing as humans continue to clear land and build houses in areas that were formerly home to wildlife. Animals such as raccoons have adapted to urban conditions and are common carriers of rabies. People’s desire to touch wild animals and livestock has resulted in the establishment of petting zoos. Public health officials in several countries, including the US, Canada, and United Kingdom, are trying to control the spread Preventing Zoonoses There are several things that can be done to minimize your exposure to the infectious organisms that cause disease. First, make sure your pet receives all of the recommended vaccinations for... read more of disease at these zoos through inspections and rules, including handwashing with antibacterial soap.

In late 2019, a new coronavirus that causes severe respiratory disease and other symptoms in people was identified in China. Although the exact animal source is still being investigated, it is likely that it came from a bat native to the area. The disease it causes is known as COVID-19. Uncontrolled spread of an infection in multiple countries is known as a pandemic. which is what happened when COVID-19 spread beyond the city where the first cases occurred to affect countries around the world. Although a handful of pets have tested positive for the virus, domestic animals do not appear to be a risk for spreading the virus to people. More information on the new coronavirus and its affects on people and animals can be found on the Veterinary Manual's COVID-19 resources page.

People with weakened immune systems, such as those with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) are much more likely to get diseases from animals, including tuberculosis and foodborne Salmonella infections. Some very rare diseases may emerge in individuals who have AIDS or other conditions that impair the body’s ability to fight infections. Many of these organisms do not ordinarily cause disease.

For More Information

Also see professional content regarding zoonotic diseases.

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