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Anemia of Chronic Disease in Animals

By

Steven L. Marks

, BVSc, MS, MRCVS, DACVIM (SAIM), North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine;


Allison Kendall

, DVM, MS, DACVIM, North Carolina State University

Last full review/revision Sep 2019 | Content last modified Oct 2019

Anemia of chronic disease can be characterized as mild to moderate, nonregenerative, normochromic, and normocytic. It is the most common form of anemia seen in animals. The anemia can be secondary to chronic inflammation or infection, neoplasia, liver disease, hyper- or hypoadrenocorticism, or hypothyroidism. The anemia is mediated by cytokines produced by inflammatory cells, which lead to decreases in iron availability, RBC survival, and the marrow’s ability to regenerate. Treatment should be directed at the underlying disease and often results in resolution of the anemia.

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Circulatory System
A 10-year-old, male-castrated golden retriever has a 1-month history of mild lethargy and decreased appetite. On physical examination, he has pale mucous membranes and weak femoral pulses. His complete blood count (CBC) shows a decreased packed cell volume (PCV), decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). His biochemistry panel shows a mildly increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level and mildly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this dog’s anemia? 
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