Initial emergency support of amphibians includes providing fluid treatment, oxygen, and an environment of proper temperature and humidity. Placing the patient in a shallow bowl of isotonic or slightly hypotonic fluid enables transdermal uptake. Amphibian Ringer’s solution (6.6 g NaCl, 0.15 g KCl, 0.15 g CaCl2, 0.2 g NaHCO3 in 1 L of distilled water) is effective; alternatively, a solution of equal parts 2.5% dextrose in 0.45% sodium chloride and lactated Ringer’s may be more readily available and can be used. Coelomic, IV, or interosseus fluids may be administered by bolus to larger animals at 5–10 mL/kg.
In the absence of known exposure to an organophosphate, seizuring animals should be treated for hypocalcemia (calcium gluconate, 100 mg/kg, IM, IV, SC, or intracoelomically, every 12–24 hours), organophosphate toxicity (atropine, 0.1 mg/kg, SC or IM as needed), and thiamine deficiency (vitamin B1 25–100 mg/kg, IM or intracoelomically, as needed). If sepsis is suspected, antimicrobial administration (eg, enrofloxacin 5–10 mg/kg, PO, SC, IM, or intracoelomically, every 24 hours) should be initiated.
Treatment for traumatic injuries is directed at minimizing blood loss, providing fluid treatment and respiratory support (doxapram 5 mg/kg, IM or IV, as needed), and reducing pain (buprenorphine 0.02 mg/kg, IM, SC, or PO, or meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, IM, SC, or PO), followed by corrective treatment.
For More Information
Divers S, Stahl S, eds. Mader's Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd ed. Elsevier, 2017.
Also see pet health content regarding diseases and disorders of amphibians Disorders and Diseases of Amphibians Disease in amphibians can best be minimized through prevention or early treatment. Proper care and housing are important, in part because ideal environments for amphibians are often moist and... read more .