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Gross pathology photograph displaying a ventricular septal defect (VSD) in the heart of a llama. This is the most common type of heart defect in alpacas and llamas. Affected crias may die suddenly or may fail to thrive. Small defects may result in no overt signs. A holosystolic murmur may be auscultated with a point of maximal intensity on the right.
Courtesy of Dr. LaRue Johnson.