Merck Manual

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Professional Version

Miscellaneous Agents for Ocular Treatment in Animals


Nick Whelan

, BVSc, DACVCP, DACVO, Animal Eye Clinic of Waterloo Region

Reviewed/Revised Oct 2021 | Modified Nov 2022

Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is an antifibrinolytic that converts plasminogen to the serine proteinase plasmin. It is used intracamerally after cataract surgery to break down anterior chamber fibrin.

Collagen cross-linking using topical riboflavin and UV-A light is used in the treatment of infectious and melting cornea ulcers and bullous keratopathy. The combination causes the formation of new covalent bonds between collagen fibrils increasing corneal stability. There are species differences in the penetration of topical riboflavin into the corneal stroma, and care is needed to avoid possible UV-A–induced endothelial damage in thin corneas.

An aldose reductase inhibitor for use in diabetic dogs to prevent the development of sorbitol cataracts is currently awaiting FDA review.

In theory, antioxidants have the potential to decrease progression of cataracts; however, none have been clinically proved to do so. Their use can delay opportune intervention to prevent permanent loss of vision (ie, lens-induced uveitis, progression to hypermature and secondary retinal detachment).

Suprachoroidal cyclosporine implants have been used for equine recurrent uveitis Equine Recurrent Uveitis .

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