Two common and distinct forms of posthitis and vulvitis are recognized in small ruminants. The first, referred to as enzootic posthitis and vulvitis Enzootic Posthitis and Vulvitis in Sheep and Goats Enzootic posthitis and vulvitis is principally a disease of castrated males (wethers) fed high-protein diets (eg, grazing lush pastures). Initially, small ulcers develop that may coalesce and... read more , is associated with high-protein diets, infection with Corynebacterium renale or other urease-producing organisms, locally high concentrations of ammonia, and severe posthitis. The second is referred to as necrotic or ulcerative balanoposthitis and vulvitis Ulcerative Balanoposthitis and Vulvitis in Sheep and Goats Preputial swelling in an early case of ovine posthitis ("pizzle rot"). Ulcerative balanoposthitis and vulvitis is characterized by ulceration and inflammation of the glans penis and the prepuce... read more . Its cause is unclear, but Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides is implicated, as are other Mycoplasma spp organisms of the Histophilus/Haemophilus group, and potentially viruses, such as caprine herpesvirus 1.