Contusion and hematoma of the vagina occur after parturition in all species but especially in mares and sows. Occasionally, vaginal hematomas in sows may rupture and cause serious hemorrhage that can be controlled by ligation of the labial branch of the internal pudendal artery. Necrotic vaginitis, vestibulitis, and vulvitis may follow dystocia in all species. Onset of clinical signs, including an arched back, elevated tail, anorexia, straining and dysuria, vulvar and perivulvar swelling, and sometimes a foul-smelling serous vaginal discharge, occurs within 1–4 days of parturition and may persist for 2–4 weeks. In most cases, only medical treatment is needed. Frequently, antimicrobial prophylaxis is indicated, because clostridial or other organisms may proliferate in the affected tissues, resulting in tetanus, blackleg, or other forms of clostridial myositis. Potential sequelae of necrotic vaginitis include perivaginal abscessation, transvaginal adhesions and permanent vaginal strictures.