Contusion and hematoma of the vagina are noted infrequently after parturition in all species but particularly in mares and sows. Occasionally, vaginal hematomas in sows may rupture and cause serious (or fatal) hemorrhage that can be controlled by ligation of the labial branch of the internal pudendal artery. Necrotic vaginitis, vestibulitis, and vulvitis may follow dystocia in all species. Onset of signs, consisting of arched back, elevated tail, anorexia, dysuria, straining, vulvar and perivulvar swelling, and possibly a fetid, serous discharge, begins within 1–4 days of parturition and may persist for 2–4 wk. In most cases, only gentle and conservative treatment is needed. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment is wise, because clostridial or other organisms may proliferate in the damaged tissue and cause tetanus (see Tetanus), blackleg (see Blackleg), or other forms of clostridial myositis. Possible consequences of necrotic vaginitis include permanent stricture of the vagina, transvaginal adhesions, or perivaginal abscessation.