Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link
Professional Version

Causes of Respiratory Disease in Animals


Caroline C. Tonozzi

, DVM, DACVECC, Mission Veterinary Partners

Reviewed/Revised Apr 2021 | Modified Nov 2022

Congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract are rare but do occur. Examples include cysts in the sinuses and turbinates, tracheal hypoplasia, nasopharyngeal turbinates, and accessory lungs. A common cause of upper respiratory tract malfunction is rhinitis (which results in fluid exudate with neutrophils and macrophages), or erosion and ulceration (or both) of the nasal mucosa. It may be caused by viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic agents, as well as by hypersensitivity reactions, such as localized allergies and anaphylaxis ( see The Biology of the Immune System The Biology of the Immune System ). Atrophy of the turbinates (eg, in atrophic rhinitis of pigs) removes a major filtration function and exposes the lungs to much larger loads of dust and microorganisms. The nasal cavity may be obstructed by tumors, granulomas, abscesses, or foreign bodies. Sinusitis can be a complication of upper respiratory infections, tooth root infection, or dehorning.

Laryngitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis result in coughing and possibly inspiratory or expiratory dyspnea. Coughing may be nonproductive if the irritation is caused by mucosal erosion, or productive if caused by copious exudate in the major airways. Severe pulmonary edema and emphysema cause extreme respiratory insufficiency.

One of the most common respiratory diseases is pneumonia, which is defined as inflammation of the lungs. There are many systems to classify the various types of pneumonia. One useful method is to classify according to the distribution of lesions in the lungs. Focal pneumonia has one or more discrete foci in a random pattern, eg, abscessation due to emboli from other sites, tuberculosis, or actinomycosis. Lobular pneumonia accentuates the anatomic pattern of lobules; for example, bronchopneumonia caused by Pasteurella multocida. Lobar pneumonia affects large areas of lobes and is often severe (eg, fibrinous pneumonic pasteurellosis of cattle). Diffuse or interstitial pneumonia often involves the entire lung, as in maedi of sheep or in hypersensitivity reactions. The appearance or cause of a particular pneumonia can be described further, eg, gangrenous, parasitic (verminous), aspiration, etc.

Infection may develop as a result of one or a combination of factors:

  • Innate defense mechanisms are overwhelmed, the animal is under stress (eg, transport, illness)

  • The infectious agent is highly virulent

  • The size of the inoculum is large

  • The animal is immunocompromised

The initial problem in many cases of pneumonia is thought to be a sudden change in the normal nasal bacterial flora, which results in a sudden dramatic increase in one or more species of bacteria. Bacterial proliferation is usually caused by a breakdown of the host defenses as a result of stress (eg, transportation, concurrent illness) or cellular insult (eg, viral infection, toxicity). These bacteria are breathed into the lung in large numbers and may overwhelm the normal defense mechanisms, localize, multiply, and initiate inflammation.

In addition, stress is often a precursor of viral respiratory infections, particularly in groups of animals that have recently been congregated and stressed by travel, handling, and mixing. Some respiratory viral infections can cause temporary dysfunction of phagocytic mechanisms of the alveolar macrophages. This usually occurs several days after viral exposure. Inhaled bacteria proliferate and pneumonia ensues, often with an overwhelming infection and massive exudation into the alveoli.

Pneumonia also can be caused by direct infection with viruses, bacteria, and fungi, as well as by toxins arriving hematogenously, by inhalation, or by aspiration of food or gastric contents.

Through natural processes, possibly aided by appropriate therapy, the exudate may be removed from the lungs, and the mucosal lesions of the air passages may heal. However, serious sequelae can persist. Bronchiectasis is a chronic lesion of the bronchi and parenchyma characterized by irreversible cylindrical or saccular dilatation, secondary infection, and atelectasis. Ulceration of bronchioles caused by viral agents may lead to organized plugs of connective tissue in small bronchioles, a lesion called bronchiolitis obliterans, which may cause permanent obstruction, atelectasis, and severe respiratory insufficiency. Constriction of bronchi and bronchioles in chronic allergic bronchitis and bronchiolitis results in similar clinical signs. However, administration of bronchodilators results in rapid relief of airway obstruction in cases of allergic bronchitis Kennel Cough Kennel cough results from inflammation of the trachea. It is a mild, self-limiting disease but may progress to bronchopneumonia in puppies or to chronic bronchitis in debilitated adult or aged... read more (eg, heaves Asthma in Horses Equine asthma is a chronic, nonseptic respiratory disease of adult horses. Although a heterogenous disease, all horses with asthma share common features of airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness... read more Asthma in Horses in horses). Some chronic pneumonias (eg, maedi Lentivirus Pneumonia in Sheep and Goats Lentiviral infection causes a progressive, interstitial pneumonia typically observed in mature sheep. Clinical signs include weight loss and increasing respiratory distress. There is no treatment... read more in sheep) are characterized by firm diffuse lesions due to hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles, hyperplasia of smooth muscle around bronchioles, diffuse fibrosis, and diffuse lymphocytic infiltration.

Most infectious pneumonias develop in the anteroventral portions of the lungs. However, infectious agents, as well as malignant tumor cells, can invade the lungs via the bloodstream. Fluid or air within the pleural space (ie, empyema, hydrothorax, chylothorax, atelectasis, diaphragmatic hernia, or pneumothorax) can also seriously impair respiratory function. Pulmonary thrombosis Thrombosis, Embolism, and Aneurysm in Animals Thrombosis (clot formation within a blood vessel), embolism (process by which unattached material (emboli) such as a blood clot, fat or cholesterol deposit, gas, tissue, or foreign material... read more Thrombosis, Embolism, and Aneurysm in Animals leads to acute, often fulminant, respiratory failure as a result of a lack of pulmonary arterial blood flow to ventilated regions of the lung. Toxic injury, such as in 3-methylindole toxicity in cattle, causes edema, emphysema, and necrosis of alveolar epithelium, followed by compensatory hyperplasia of these cells; the effects on gas exchange result in severe hypoxia and dyspnea.

Although pneumonia is most important, several other thoracic conditions can cause respiratory dysfunction. Pulmonary edema, the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissue and alveoli, may occur in conjunction with circulatory disorders, particularly left ventricular failure or increased capillary permeability, occasionally in anaphylactic and allergic reactions, and in some infectious diseases. Head trauma can cause noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Animals stand in preference to lying down, lie only in sternal recumbency, or may assume a sitting position (also known as orthopnea). Auscultation of the chest may reveal crackles or rhales.

Pleural space disease may be caused by fluid or air causing respiratory distress. Short, choppy breathing with an increase in rate and effort is usually seen, often with paradoxic movement of the chest and abdomen with each breath.

Pleuritis (pleurisy) may be caused by any pathogen that gains entrance to the pleural cavity, and it can be an extension of bronchopneumonia. Rapid, shallow breathing, fever, and thoracic pain are suggestive of pleuritis. Auscultation of the chest may reveal friction sounds as well as dull lung sounds.

Empyema (purulent exudate in the pleural cavity) is caused by pyogenic bacteria or fungi reaching the thoracic cavity via the blood or by extension of a pneumonia, traumatic reticulitis, migrating foreign body, or penetrating wound of the chest. Cough, fever, pain, tachypnea, and orthopnea may be present.

Hemothorax (the accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity) is usually caused by trauma to the thorax, coagulopathy, or thoracic neoplasia (eg, hemangiosarcoma). Hydrothorax (the accumulation of transudate in the pleural cavity) is usually due to interference with venous blood flow or lymph drainage or secondary to decreased colloid osmotic pressure from hypoalbuminemia. Chylothorax (the accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity) is relatively rare and is seen most often in cats but may also been seen in dogs. It may be caused by rupture of the thoracic duct but often is idiopathic. It also can be secondary to left-side congestive heart failure.

Pneumothorax (air in the pleural cavity Initial Triage and Resuscitation of Small Animal Emergency Patients Slightly cyanotic (purple or muddy)-appearing mucous membranes in a dog with a partial airway obstruction. Pale mucous membranes in a dog. Normal, pink mucous membranes in a dog. Triage is the... read more Initial Triage and Resuscitation of Small Animal Emergency Patients ) may be of traumatic or spontaneous origin. Air can enter the pleural cavity through penetrating wounds of the thoracic wall or by extension from pulmonary emphysema or ruptured bullae. The lung collapses if a large volume of air enters the pleural cavity. Bilateral pneumothorax may develop if the mediastinum is weak or incomplete. Inspiratory dyspnea or rapid, shallow breathing is evident.

For More Information

quiz link

Test your knowledge

Take a Quiz!